Pengaruh Indeks Panen Terhadap Umur Simpan dan Mutu Buah Naga (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Selama Penyimpanan [Effect of Harvest Index on Shelf-Life and Quality of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) During Storage]

Leni Marlina, Bambang Hariyanto, nFN Jumjunidang, Irwan Muas

Abstract


Pengembangan buah naga (Hylocereus polyrhizus) masih mengalami kendala dalam aspek pascapanen, seperti rendahnya mutu buah di pasaran dan pendeknya umur simpan. Indeks panen yang tepat diharapkan dapat meningkatkan mutu buah naga di pasaran dan memperpanjang umur simpan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh indeks panen terhadap mutu dan umur simpan buah naga selama penyimpanan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan September sampai dengan November 2015 di Laboratorium Kimia dan Pascapanen Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika (Balitbu Tropika), Solok, Sumatra Barat. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan lima perlakuan, yaitu indeks I=kulit buah hijau  90–99% dan merah 1–10% (hijau semburat merah) jumbai hijau, indeks II=kulit buah hijau 60–89% dan merah 11–40% (hijau>merah) jumbai hijau, indeks III=kulit buah hijau 11–40% dan merah 60–89% (hijau<merah) jumbai hijau, indeks IV=kulit buah hijau 0–10% dan merah 90–100% (merah terang) jumbai hijau, dan indeks V=kulit buah merah gelap jumbai hijau, dan lima ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan indeks panen berpengaruh nyata terhadap warna kulit buah, kesegaran, padatan terlarut total, asam tertitrasi total, dan susut bobot. Perlakuan indeks panen yang berbeda memberikan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap mutu dan umur simpan buah naga. Perlakuan yang menghasilkan mutu  terbaik selama buah disimpan adalah buah naga yang dipanen pada indeks III. Perlakuan terbaik yang menghasilkan umur simpan terlama adalah buah naga yang dipanen pada indeks II, yaitu 8 hari setelah panen. 

Keywords

Indeks panen; Mutu; Umur simpan; Buah naga

Abstract

The development of dragon fruit is still encountered some constraints in postharvest aspects i.e. low quality in the market and short self-life. The suitable harvest index is intended to improve quality and prolong the shelf-life of dragon fruit. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of harvest index on quality and shelf-life of dragon fruits during storage. The research was conducted from September to November 2015 at Chemistry and Postharvest Laboratory of Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute (ITFRI), Solok. The study was used completely randomized design with five treatments were index I=peel color are green 90–99% and red 1–10% (green tinge of red), II=peel color are green 60–89% and red 11–40% (green>red), III=peel color are green 11–40% and red 60–89% (green<red), IV=peel color are green 1–10% and red=90–100% (light red), and V=peel color  is dark red with green scaled all of treatments, and five replications. The results showed that harvest index effected in peel color, freshness, total soluble solid, total titrable acidity, and weight loss. The treatment which produces the best quality during storage was  index III. The best treatment that prolongs the shelf-lfe of dragon fruit during storage was index II i.e. 8 day after harvesting. 


Keywords


Harvest index; Quality; Shelf-life; Dragon fruit

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v30n1.2020.p87-96

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