Kekerabatan Genetik Beberapa Spesies Jeruk Berdasarkan Taksonometri

- Hardiyanto, E Mujiarto, E S Sulasmi

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Metode karakterisasi yang dilakukan pada koleksi jeruk di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, Tlekung sampai saat ini masih terbatas pada pengamatan morfologi. D� � � � � Dengan demikian, data yang diperoleh belum cukup untuk menggambarkan kekerabatan spesies jeruk, sebab deskripsinya belum menggambarkan karakter sebenarnya dari berbagai spesies jeruk yang dikoleksi. Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh informasi mengenai karakter morfologi varietas-varietas lokal jeruk dari beberapa spesies dan menentukan kedudukan takson/kategori secara hierarki untuk varietas jeruk lokal. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Biologi, Jurusan Biologi, Universitas Negeri Malang dan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, Tlekung-Batu. Jeruk yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah 3 spesies jeruk komersial masing-masing 3 varietas, yaitu Citrus reticulata Blanco (Cinakonde, Batu, dan Pulung), C. maxima Merr. (Nambangan, Sambas, dan Sri Nyonya), dan C. sinensis Osbeck. (Pacitan, Kupang, dan Punten). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya perbedaan secara morfologi maupun anatomi diantara spesies jeruk dan varietas jeruk lokal. Tingkat kekerabatan genetik pada 3 spesies jeruk juga sangat rendah. Adapun nilai kekerabatan untuk variets jeruk lokal pada C. maxima merr, C. reticulata Blanco, dan C. sinensis Osbeck masing-masing adalah 68%, 54%, dan 47%. Namun demikian, varietas lokal Nambangan (C. maxima Merr) dan Cinakonde (C. reticulata Blanco) ternyata terpisah dari kelompoknya pada analisis klaster dan menunjukkan ciri-ciri yang berbeda. V� � � � � � � � � � � � Varietas jeruk lokal yang diteliti tidak semua dapat dikategorikan sebagai varietas. Secara hierarki Nambangan dan Cinakonde dapat dikategorikan sebagai varietas, sedangkan varietas jeruk lokal yang lain dikategorikan sebagai subspesies sebab tidak adanya karakter yang membedakan dari kelompoknya secara jelas.

ABSTRACT. Hardiyanto, E. Mujiarto, and E.S. Sulasmi. 2007. Genetic Relationship Among Several Citrus Species Based on Taxonometry. Characterization method applied on citrus collection in Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, up to now was only based on morphological observation. Therefore, the obtained data have not really described the citrus relationship because the descriptions have not yet expressed the real characters of collected citrus species. The aim of this research was to obtain some information on morphological characteristics and a hierarchy taxon status of local varieties derived from several species. The research was carried out at Biology laboratorium, Malang University and Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute. Three citrus species with 3 varieties, respectively, were used in this research, those were Citrus reticulata Blanco (Cinakonde, Batu, and Pulung), C. maxima Merr. (Nambangan, Sambas, and Sri Nyonya), and C. sinensis Osbeck (Pacitan, Kupang, and Punten). The results indicated that there were morphological and anatomical different among citrus species as well as local citrus varieties. The level of genetic relationship among three citrus species was aslso very low. Moreover, the level of genetic relationship of local citrus varieties of C. maxima Merr, C. reticulata Blanco, and C. sinensis Osbeck was 68, 54, and 47%, repectively. Nevertheless, Nambangan (C. maxima Merr) and Cinakonde (C. reticulata Blanco) were separated from its group based on cluster analysis and showed different characters. It seems that not all citrus varieties studied were categorized as varieties. It was only Nambangan and Cinakonde were categorized as varieties, while other citrus varieties were categorized as subspecies because there was no different character identified within their groups.

Keywords


Citrus sp.; Anatomi; Morfologi; Taksonometri; Varietas; Kekerabatan genetik

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n3.2007.p%25p

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