Pengaruh Formulasi Biofungsida Berbahan Aktif Cladosporium sp. Terhadap Penyakit Karat Putih Pada Tanaman Krisan (Effect of Biofungcide Formulation Based on Cladosporium sp. Against White Rust Disease on Chrysanthemum)

Evi Silvia Yusuf, Wakiah Nuryani, Kurniawan Budiarto

Abstract


Pengendalian penyakit karat putih pada tanaman krisan dengan menggunakan agens hayati merupakan salah satu upaya penting dalam mewujudkan sistem pertanian yang berkelanjutan dan ramah lingkungan. Penelitian bertujuan mengevaluasi kemangkusan biofungisida berbahan aktif Cladosporium sp. pada beberapa formulasi (WP-1, WP-2, dan WP-3) dibandingkan dengan penggunaan fungisida sintetik dan asam salisilat dalam mengendalikan penyakit karat pada krisan cv. Puspita Nusantara. Penelitian berlangsung selama 1 tahun dari bulan Januari hingga Desember 2016, dilakukan melalui dua tahap, yaitu penelitian super impose di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap terdiri atas enam perlakuan (WP-1, WP-2, WP-3, AS, FS, dan kontrol) dengan lima ulangan, setiap ulangan terdiri atas 100 tanaman. Aplikasi dilakukan setiap minggu pada sore hari dan verifikasi kemangkusan di lahan petani menggunakan uji t berpasangan terdiri atas dua perlakuan (WP-1 2 g/l dan fungisida sintetik berbahan aktif pyraclostrobin 250 g/l) dengan 10 ulangan. Hasil evaluasi kemangkusan perlakuan biofungisida menunjukkan bahwa seluruh formulasi mampu menekan serangan penyakit karat sebesar 17% hingga 27%. Demikian juga dengan hasil uji di lahan petani formulasi WP-1 mampu mengimbangi fungisida sintetik dengan menyisakan serangan karat 1,6% dan 1,7%. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa seluruh formulasi biofungisida mempunyai keefektifan yang sama dalam menurunkan intensitas dan perkembangan penyakit karat, dengan fungisida sintetik berbahan aktif pyraclostrobin 250 g/l dengan kualitas bunga yang cenderung lebih baik dibandingkan dengan kultur teknis petani yang berbasis fungisida sintetik.

Keywords

Dendranthema grandiflora; Agens hayati; Intensitas serangan; Evaluasi lapangan

Abstract 

The application of biological agents to control white rust on chrysanthemum is one important issues in the era of ecofriendly and sustainable agriculture, including in chrysanthemum production system. The research was carried out to evaluate the application of several biofungicide formulations with the active ingredient of Cladosporium sp., i.e. WP-1, WP-2, and WP-3, synthetic fungicide and salicylic acid for white rust control in chrysanthemum cv. Puspita Nusantara. The research was conducted from January to December 2015, through two subsequent experiments, i.e. super-impose experiment that located in Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institution using a complete randomized design consisting of six treatments (WP-1, WP-2, WP-3, AS, FS, and control) and five replications and verification of biofungicide effectivess at the growers’ nursery using paired t test consisting of dua treatments (WP-1 2 g/l) dan synthetic fungicide with active ingridient pyraclostrobin 250 g/l) and 10 replications. The results of evaluation of biofungicide treatment efficacy showed that all of formulations biofungicide formulation were able to suppress rust attack by 17% to 27%. Likewise with the results of tests on farmer land the WP-1 formulation was able to compensate for synthetic fungicide with 1.6% and 1.7% rust attack. The results of this experiment showed that all of biofungicide formulations and synthetic fungicides had the same effectiveness in reducing the intensity and development of rust disease and improved flower quality compared to farmers’ technical culture based on synthetic fungicides.


Keywords


Dendranthema grandiflora; Biological agent; Attack intensity; Field evaluation

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n1.2019.p91-102

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