Pengaruh Perubahan Harga Pangan terhadap Tingkat Kesejahteraan Rumahtangga di Indonesia

Rita Yuliana, nFN Harianto, Sri Hartoyo, Muhammad Firdaus

Abstract


English
Food problems related to the level of people's welfare is increasing food prices.  Changes in welfare levels due to rising food prices will vary among household groups, therefore it is necessary to be seen by household groups that are according to residence (urban/rural), according to poverty status (poor/non-poor), and according to main sources of household incomes (agriculture/non-agricultural). In addition, it is also necessary to see the contribution of each food group to the change of welfare level in the household group. This study aims to evaluate changes in household welfare in Indonesia by household groups and the contribution of food groups to changes in the level of welfare as a result of rising food prices. The measure used to measure changes in the level of household welfare is Compensating Variation (CV) with Hicksian compensated price elasticities obtained from the demand function model of Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) with National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) March 2016. The results show that in March 2016 there were  welfare losses in all household groups with different CV values (welfare losses), and the contribution of each food group to the decreasing of welfare levels varied on each group of households.


Indonesian
Permasalahan pangan yang berkaitan dengan tingkat kesejahteraan masyarakat adalah kenaikan harga pangan.  Perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan akibat kenaikan harga pangan ini akan berbeda-beda pada masing-masing kelompok rumahtangga, oleh karena itu perlu dilihat menurut kelompok rumahtangga yaitu menurut tempat tinggal (perkotaan/perdesaan), menurut status kemiskinan (miskin/tidak miskin), dan menurut sumber utama penghasilan rumahtangga (pertanian/non-pertanian).  Selain itu, perlu dilihat pula kontribusi masing-masing kelompok makanan terhadap perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan pada kelompok rumahtangga tersebut.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan rumahtangga di Indonesia menurut kelompok rumahtangga dan kontribusi kelompok makanan terhadap perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan tersebut akibat terjadinya kenaikan harga pangan.  Ukuran yang digunakan untuk mengukur perubahan tingkat kesejahteraan rumahtangga adalah Compensating Variation (CV) dengan nilai-nilai elastisitas harga terkompensasi Hicksian yang diperoleh dari model fungsi permintaan Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) dengan data Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Susenas) periode Maret 2016.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada Maret 2016, terjadi penurunan tingkat kesejahteraan pada semua kelompok rumahtangga dengan nilai CV (penurunan tingkat kesejahteraan) yang berbeda-beda akibat kenaikan harga pangan, dan kontribusi masing-masing kelompok makanan terhadap penurunan tingkat kesejahteraan berbeda-beda pada masing-masing kelompok rumahtangga.

Keywords


welfare level; compensating variation; compensated price elasticities; household groups; food groups; tingkat kesejahteraan; elastisitas harga terkompensasi; kelompok rumahtangga; kelompok makanan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v37n1.2019.25-46

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