Dinamika Diversifikasi Sumber Pendapatan Rumah Tangga Perdesaan di Berbagai Agroekosistem

Sri Hery Susilowati

Abstract


English
Empirical evidence indicates that diversification does not always increase income level. It depends on the reasons or motivation for diversification. Economic and social problems arise if diversification is based on resource constraints. This study aims to analyze the level, direction, and determinants of income diversification of rural households. The study used micro panel data of rural households in some provinces in Indonesia. Diversification level was measured using an entropy index. The results show that agricultural sector remains the dominant income source for rural households in all agroecosystems. Diversification indices increase in all agro- ecosystems. Dry-land plantation agroecosystem has the smallest diversification index, while the highest is found in wetland followed by dry-land crop and vegetable agroecosystems. Income diversification level is influenced by household head’s age and educational level, number of working female and male household members, land occupation, household asset value. To increase income source diversification, it is necessary to improve farmers' resource capacity through education and skill enhancement, access to land utilization, capital and other productive assets as well as better quality and access to basic services and economic infrastructures.


Indonesian
Fakta empiris menunjukkan bahwa diversifikasi tidak selalu meningkatkan pendapatan, tergantung pada latar belakang atau motif berdiversifikasi. Permasalahan ekonomi dan sosial timbul jika diversifikasi didasarkan pada keterbatasan sumber daya (push factor). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis tingkat dan arah perubahan diversifikasi, keterkaitan antara diversifikasi dan pendapatan, serta faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi diversifikasi sumber pendapatan rumah tangga. Penelitian menggunakan data panel mikro rumah tangga perdesaan di beberapa provinsi di Indonesia. Tingkat diversifikasi dianalisis menggunakan indeks entropi, sedangkan faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi diversifikasi menggunakan model linier berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sektor pertanian masih tetap sebagai sumber pendapatan utama rumah tangga di semua agroekosistem. Peningkatan diversifikasi terjadi di semua agroekosistem.  Agroekosistem kebun memiliki indeks diversifikasi terkecil; terbesar pada agroekosistem sawah, diikuti dengan lahan kering palawija dan sayuran. Pola diversifikasi mengarah ke spesialisasi pertanian maupun berdiversifikasi ke nonpertanian. Faktor internal rumah tangga petani yang memengaruhi tingkat diversifikasi, di antaranya umur kepala keluarga, pendidikan kepala keluarga, jumlah anggota rumah tangga bekerja wanita, jumlah anggota rumah tangga bekerja pria, luas garapan, dan nilai aset rumah tangga. Untuk meningkatkan diversifikasi sumber pendapatan yang berorientasi pada peningkatan pendapatan rumah tangga, diperlukan peningkatan kapasitas sumber daya petani melalui peningkatan pendidikan dan keterampilan, perbaikan akses penguasaan lahan, fasilitasi permodalan dan aset produktif lainnya, serta  peningkatan kualitas dan akses terhadap pelayanan dasar dan infrastruktur ekonomi.

Keywords


agricultural income share; entrophy index; income diversification; diversifikasi pendapatan; indeks entropi; pangsa pendapatan pertanian

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v35n2.2017.105-126

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