Keunggulan Komparatif dan Kinerja Ekspor Minyak Sawit Mentah Indonesia di Pasar Internasional

agung prasetyo, Sri Marwanti, nFN Darsono

Abstract


English
The average growth rate of Indonesia’s CPO  exports was 11.94% per year, far below those of Thailand, Malaysia, and Colombia with growth rates of 59.55%, 25.19%, and 20.35% per year respectively in the 2001–2015 period. That condition was worsened by higher tax enforcement on Indonesian CPO in EU countries in 2012 causing Indonesia shifted its exports to India, China, and Pakistan. This study aims to analyze comparative advantage of Indonesian CPO compared to Malaysia, Thailand, and Colombia using the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) analysis. The study also analyzes Indonesia’s CPO export performance in the world markets, especially in India, China, Pakistan, and Netherlands compared to other CPO producers using the Constant Market Share (CMS) approach. RCA analysis showed that Indonesia, Malaysia, Colombia, and Thailand had comparative advantage on CPO. Thailand had the highest RCA index followed by Malaysia, Colombia, and Indonesia. CMS analysis indicated that Indonesia’s CPO export performance was poorer than Malaysia in terms of growth rate, market distribution, and competitiveness, but was better in product composition. Increasing comparative advantage requires synergic policies which include establishing preferential trade agreement, constructing CPO stocking terminals in major importing countries, improving distribution and increasing market penetration.


Indonesian
Rata-rata laju pertumbuhan ekspor minyak sawit mentah (Crude Palm Oil/CPO) Indonesia tahun 2001–2015 adalah 11,94% per tahun, jauh di bawah Thailand, Malaysia, dan Kolombia yang tumbuh masing-masing sebesar 59,55%, 25,19%, dan 20,35% per tahun. Kondisi ini diperburuk dengan pemberlakuan pajak tinggi atas CPO Indonesia di Uni Eropa pada tahun 2012 sehingga mendorong Indonesia mengalihkan fokus ekspor CPO ke India, China, dan Pakistan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keunggulan komparatif CPO Indonesia dibandingkan dengan Malaysia, Thailand, dan Kolombia dengan menggunakan analisis Revealed Comparatif Advantage (RCA) dan mengetahui kinerja ekspor CPO Indonesia di pasar dunia terutama di India, China, Pakistan, dan Belanda dibandingkan produsen CPO lainnya dengan menggunakan pendekatan Constant Market Share (CMS). Analisis RCA menunjukan bahwa Indonesia, Malaysia, Kolombia, dan Thailand sama-sama memiliki keunggulan komparatif pada CPO. Thailand memiliki nilai indeks RCA tertinggi diikuti oleh Malaysia, Kolombia, dan Indonesia. Berdasarkan analisis CMS, kinerja ekspor CPO Indonesia lebih rendah dibandingkan Malaysia dalam aspek pertumbuhan, distribusi pasar, dan daya saing; tetapi lebih baik dalam aspek komposisi produk. Peningkatkan keunggulan komparatif CPO memerlukan kebijakan ekspor sinergis antara lain dengan mengadakan kesepakatan perdagangan preferensial, membangun fasilitas penampungan CPO di negara-negara importir utama, memperbaiki distribusi, dan meningkatkan penetrasi pasar.

Keywords


CMS; comparative advantage; CPO; performance; RCA; keunggulan komparatif; kinerja

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v35n2.2017.89-103

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