Externalities Inclusion Into Production Cost of System of Rice Intensification

Mohamad Maulana

Abstract


Indonesia
Usaha tani padi menghasilkan eksternalitas lingkungan yang bersifat negatif. Eksternalitas tersebut merupakan biaya dan tidak dihitung dengan harga pasar sehingga nilai ekonominya tidak diketahui. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menghitung dan memasukkan biaya eksternalitas negatif tersebut ke dalam biaya produksi usaha tani System of Rice Intensification (SRI) yang berbasis penerapan usaha tani padi organik. Jenis-jenis eksternalitas negatif yang diukur dalam riset ini meliputi CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, dan PM10. Dalam riset ini digunakan metode Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) dan pendekatan biaya kerusakan yang ditimbulkan oleh polutan serta konsep biaya sosial. Riset dilakukan di Desa Dlingo, Kabupaten Boyolali, Jawa Tengah. Hasil riset menunjukkan bahwa biaya produksi 1 kg GKP adalah Rp1.529/kg. Dengan biaya kerusakan yang dihitung dan dimasukkan ke dalam biaya produksi mencapai Rp9/kg, maka biaya sosial memproduksi 1 kg GKP adalah Rp1.539/kg atau Rp9,60 juta/ha/musim. Keuntungan bersih setelah memasukkan biaya eksternalitas yang diperoleh petani SRI mencapai Rp18,04 juta/ha/musim. Dengan menggunakan target perluasan wilayah SRI pada tahun 2015 sebesar 200.000 ha, maka pemerintah dapat memperoleh keuntungan Rp44,51 miliar.

English
Rice production process generates negative environmental externalities. These externalities are considered as a cost and not accounted by market price such that its economic externalities value is unknown. This study aims to calculate and to internalize negative externalities costs into production costs of the System of Rice Intensification as a rice production process based on organic practices. The quantities of externalities measured in this research are CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, and PM10. This research uses a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), a damage cost approach, and a social costs concept. This research was conducted in Dlingo Village, Boyolali Regency, Central Java Province. The results show that the private cost per kg of unhulled rice was Rp1,529 and damage cost was Rp9/kg. Social costs of producing 1 kg of unhulled rice was Rp1,539 or Rp9.60 million/ha/season. SRI’s farmers received net social benefit of Rp18.04 million/ha/season. Considering that the target of extended area for SRI in 2015 was 200,000 ha, government could receive environmental benefits of Rp44.51 billion.

Keywords


System of Rice Intensification; Life Cycle Analysis; penggabungan; nilai eksternalitas; biaya sosial; inclusion; externalities; social costs

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v34n1.2016.17-33

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