The Impact of Migration on the Rice Household Economy: A Case Study in Central Java, Indonesia

I. P. Wardana, J. S. Luis, T. Paris

Abstract


Indonesian

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari dampak migrasi pria dan wanita terhadap kehidupan dan pemberdayaan wanita. Survei formal dilakukan pada 12 desa dari 4 kabupaten dan mencakup 7 desa sawah tadah hujan dan 5 desa sawah irigasi. Responden yang diwawancarai dalam survei terdiri dari 297 orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa migrasi jangka panjang kebanyakan dengan tujuan luar negeri dan migrasi musiman kebanyakan dengan tujuan kota atau desa terdekat. Migran kebanyakan berasal dari rumah tangga dengan kepemilikan sawah kurang dari 0,25 hektar. Migran jangka panjang didominasi oleh anak laki-laki dan migran musiman didominasi oleh suami dan anak laki-laki. Tujuan dari migrasi jangka panjang adalah luar negeri sedangkan migrasi musiman adalah kota-kota di Jawa. Migran jangka panjang maupun musiman kebanyakan bekerja sebagai buruh bangunan. Penghasilan dari migran jangka panjang dan musiman berkisar 30-50 persen dari pendapatan rumah tangga. Migrasi berdampak negatif terhadap produksi padi di lahan irigasi berupa kelangkaan tenaga kerja. Akan tetapi, migrasi sangat penting bagi peningkatan pendapatan rumah tangga karena kontribusinya cukup besar. Ukuran rumah tangga, usia istri, dan aset rumah tangga berpengaruh positif terhadap kejadian migrasi, sedangkan usia suami, pendidikan suami, kepemilikan lahan, dan tenaga kerja upahan berpengaruh negatif terhadap kejadian migrasi.


English

This study aimed at assessing the impact of male and female migration on women empowerment and livelihood. Formal survey was conducted at 12 villages in four districts including 7 villages of rainfed and 5 villages of irrigated lowland areas. Two hundred and ninety seven of respondents were interviewed during the survey. Results of the study showed that prevalent migration is mostly long-term for international and seasonal for rural to rural/city migration. Distribution of household with migrant is dominated by those with land ownership size less than 0.25 hectare. Long-term migrants are mostly son of the family while seasonal migrants are both son and husband. Destination of permanent migrant is foreign countries while seasonal migrant works in cities of Java. Occupation of permanent and seasonal migrant is mostly as construction worker. Remittances of permanent and seasonal migrant is ranging from 30-50 percent of total household income. Migration has more prevalent negative effect on the production in irrigated environment because of the scarcity of labor. However, migration is important in household income because of the contribution of remittances. Household size, age of wife and household durables have positive effect on migration while age of husband, education of husband, size of land holding and hired labor have negative effect.

Keywords


migrasi; pendapatan; padi; migration; income; rice

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v26n1.2008.1-20

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