Estimasi Kapasitas Adaptasi Petani Padi terhadap Cekaman Lingkungan Usahatani Akibat Perubahan Iklim

nFN Sumaryanto

Abstract


English

Climate change causes rice farming environmental stress escalation such as flood, drought and pest are increasing. This study aims to estimate rice farmers’ adaptive capacity to the unfavorable environment. Study sites are the wetland agro-ecosystem of several villages in Lampung, Central Java, and West Nusa Tenggara Provinces on 2012. Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the model applied to estimate the capacity of adaptation is the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC). The results show that the farmers’ adaptive capacity vary from low to medium levels. The proportion of farmers categorized as low, moderate, and high adaptive capacity are 16, 70, and 14 percent, respectively. Adaptive capacity is affected by the role of rice faming in households economy, quality and vulnerability of rice field to flood and drought, and household income, farmers’ education, and role of farmer’s group in building collective action to control flood, drought, and pest in rice farming.


Indonesian

Terkait perubahan iklim, cekaman lingkungan usahatani padi akibat banjir, kekeringan, dan serangan organisme pengganggu tanaman meningkat. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengestimasi kapasitas adaptasi petani padi terhadap cekaman lingkungan tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan pada agroekosistem pesawahan di beberapa desa di Lampung, Jawa Tengah, dan Nusa Tenggara Barat pada Tahun 2012. Dengan pendekatan Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), model estimasi yang digunakan adalah Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kapasitas adaptasi petani beragam dan secara umum termasuk kategori rendah – sedang. Proporsi petani dengan kapasitas adaptasi kategori rendah, sedang, dan tinggi masing-masing adalah 16, 70, dan 14 persen. Kapasitas adaptasi dipengaruhi oleh peranan usahatani lahan sawah dalam ekonomi rumah tangga, kualitas dan tingkat kerentanan lahan sawah terhadap banjir dan kekeringan, tingkat pendapatan rumah tangga, tingkat pendidikan petani, dan peranan kelompok tani dalam mengembangkan aksi kolektif pada pengendalian banjir, kekeringan, dan serangan organisme pengganggu tanaman pada usahatani padi.

Keywords


perubahan iklim; usahatani padi; kapasitas adaptasi; model MIMIC; climate change; rice farming; adaptive capacity

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v31n2.2013.115-141

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