Keragaman Genotipik dan Fenotipik 48 Aksesi Kedelai Introduksi Asal Cina

Rerenstradika T. Terryana, Kristianto Nugroho, Reflinur Reflinur, Karden Mulya, Nurwita Dewi, Puji Lestari

Abstract


Sebagai salah satu komoditas tanaman pangan penting di Indonesia setelah padi dan jagung, kedelai memerlukan upaya peningkatan keragaman genetik dengan cara introduksi aksesi dari negara lain terutama Cina sebagai salah satu negara asal kedelai di dunia. Marka simple sequence repeat (SSR) dapat digunakan untuk analisis keragaman genetik antaraksesi kedelai introduksi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari keragaman genotipik dan fenotipik 48 aksesi kedelai introduksi asal Cina menggunakan 15 marka SSR. Analisis DNA dilakukan menggunakan PCR dan data hasil PCR menggunakan marka SSR dianalisis menggunakan perangkat lunak XLSTAT, NTSYS, dan PowerMarker. Data karakter morfologis diperoleh dari basis data Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (www.ars-grin.gov). Data ini digunakan sebagai data keragaman fenotipik yang diperlukan untuk menunjang hasil karakterisasi molekuler. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat keragaman karakter morfologis dan molekuler antaraksesi kedelai yang dipelajari. Berdasarkan hasil analisis komponen utama, karakter tinggi tanaman, bobot 100 biji, hasil biji, warna pusar biji, warna trikoma, warna bunga, dan warna polong berkontribusi besar terhadap keragaman total. Analisis molekuler menggunakan marka SSR menunjukkan bahwa terdapat variasi alel yang cukup tinggi (9–25 alel) di antara aksesi kedelai dengan rerata jumlah alel 15,6, sedangkan rerata nilai Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) sebesar 0,89 (0,84–0,94). Seluruh marka SSR memiliki nilai PIC>0,5 yang menunjukkan bahwa marka tersebut informatif untuk studi keragaman genetik kedelai dengan rerata nilai diversitas gen sebesar 0,90. Hasil analisis filogenetik dan analisis koordinat utama menunjukkan bahwa 48 aksesi tersebut mengelompok menjadi tiga dengan koefisien kemiripan 0,84. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pula uji asosiasi antara marka SSR dan karakter morfologis. Asosiasi yang signifikan ditemukan pada tujuh lokus marka SSR. Persentase keragaman total yang dapat dijelaskan oleh marka SSR tersebut, yaitu 17,25–78,45%. Marka GMES2225 dan Sat_286 berasosiasi dengan warna kulit biji, sedangkan marka GmF35H berasosiasi dengan tinggi tanaman. Informasi keragaman genetik akan sangat bermanfaat sebagai langkah awal untuk kegiatan seleksi tetua persilangan dengan sifat yang diinginkan dalam membantu program pemuliaan kedelai di Indonesia.


Keywords


kedelai; Cina; keragaman genetik; marka SSR

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v13n1.2017.p1-16

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