Keragaman Genetik Dua Puluh Aksesi Plasma Nutfah Jatropha spp. Menggunakan Marka Simple Sequence Repeat

Kristianto Nugroho, Rerenstradika T. Terryana, Reflinur Reflinur, Puji Lestari, Karden Mulya, I Made Tasma

Abstract


Jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang potensial sebagai penghasil energi alternatif bahan bakar fosil. Informasi mengenai keragaman genetik genus Jatropha spp. sangat penting untuk menentukan arah kegiatan pemuliaan ke depan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keragaman genetik 20 aksesi plasma nutfah Jatropha spp. asal Indonesia dan Thailand menggunakan 20 marka SSR. Sebanyak 129 alel berhasil dideteksi dengan rentang 4-9 alel per lokus dan rerata 6,5 alel. Nilai diversitas gen sebesar 0,53 hingga 0,86 dengan rerata 0,75, sedangkan nilai PIC sebesar 0,49 hingga 0,84 dengan rerata 0,71. Sebanyak 12 marka memiliki nilai PIC > 0,70 dan bersifat informatif untuk membedakan individu jarak. Rerata frekuensi alel utama yang diperoleh sebesar 37% dengan rentang 18–55%. Sebanyak 7 marka SSR mampu membedakan genotipe heterozigot dengan nilai heterozigositas sebesar 0,05 hingga 0,11 dengan rerata 0,03. Hasil analisis filogenetik menunjukkan bahwa 20 aksesi Jatropha spp. memisah menjadi dua klaster utama pada koefisien kesamaan 0,70. Klaster pertama terdiri atas 17 aksesi J. curcas, sedangkan klaster kedua terdiri atas 3 aksesi, yaitu J. podagrica, J. gossypifolia, dan J. multifida. Data keragaman genetik yang diperoleh pada penelitian ini dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai dasar pemilihan tetua persilangan dalam rangka menghasilkan varietas unggul baru dengan karakter kadar minyak tinggi sesuai yang diharapkan.


Keywords


Jatropha spp.; keragaman genetik; SSR

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v13n1.2017.p17-24

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