Variasi Genetik Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) dari Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Nusa Tenggara Barat, dan Sulawesi Tengah

R. Heru Praptana, Y. B. Sumardiyono, Sedyo Hartono, Y. Andi Trisyono

Abstract


Tungro merupakan salah satu penyakit penting pada padi yang menjadi kendala dalam peningkatan produksi padi di Indonesia. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh infeksi dua virus yang berbeda secara serologis, yaitu Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) dan Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) yang hanya dapat ditularkan oleh wereng hijau, terutama Nephotettix virescens (Distant) secara semipersisten. Informasi keragaman genetik virus tungro diperlukan sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengendalian penyakit tungro menggunakan varietas tahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi keragaman genetik RTBV dari tiga daerah endemis virus tungro di Indonesia berdasarkan sekuen basa nukleotida dan asam amino pada open reading frame 2 (ORF2). Isolat RTBV dikoleksi di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Nusa Tenggara Barat, dan Sulawesi Tengah dengan cara penularan virus tungro secara buatan pada bibit padi varietas TN1 menggunakan wereng hijau hasil tangkapan dari lapangan. Analisis homologi sebagian sekuen DNA ORF2 RTBV menunjukkan bahwa ketiga isolat memiliki variasi kesamaan basa nukleotida dan asam amino, berturut-turut 94-98% dan 97-100%. Ketiga isolat berbeda jauh dengan isolat dari negara lain dengan tingkat kesamaan genetik 77-95% berdasarkan sekuen basa nukleotida dan 82-98% berdasarkan sekuen asam amino. Keragaman dan hubungan kekerabatan genetik ketiga isolat RTBV tidak berkorelasi dengan perbedaan geografis asal isolat. Adanya keragaman genetik antarisolat RTBV mengindikasikan bahwa berbagai strategi penggunaan varietas tahan perlu dilaksanakan untuk menjaga durabilitas ketahanan padi.


Keywords


Padi; tungro; RTBV; keragaman genetik; ORF2

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v13n2.2017.p75-82

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