Pendekatan Bioteknologi dan Genomika untuk Perbaikan Genetik Tanaman Jarak Pagar sebagai Penghasil Bahan Bakar Nabati

I Made Tasma

Abstract


Jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) merupakan tanaman penghasil minyak nabati yang dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti minyak diesel. Tanaman yang dapat tumbuh pada kondisi lahan kurang subur ini menarik minat banyak pihak untuk mengekplorasi potensinya sebagai tanaman sumber energi yang ramah lingkungan. Namun, masih banyak kendala yang dihadapi dalam pembudidayaannya supaya dapat diusahakan secara ekonomis. Dari aspek bahan tanaman dan budi daya, saat ini tanaman jarak pagar masih belum banyak diketahui. Bahkan, jarak pagar masih dianggap sebagai tanaman yang belum didomestikasikan secara penuh seperti ditunjukkan oleh fakta bahwa sebagian besar genotipe jarak pagar di dunia bijinya toksik sehingga ampas bijinya yang kaya protein tidak dapat langsung digunakan sebagai pakan ternak. Kematangan buah tanaman ini tidak serempak yang menyebabkan biaya panen tinggi. Rasio bunga betina dan bunga jantan yang rendah menyebabkan produktivitas bijinya rendah. Biji jarak pagar mengandung asam lemak poli tidak jenuh yang konsentrasinya perlu diturunkan untuk meningkatkan mutu minyak diesel. Pengetahuan genomika memungkinkan untuk mengetahui komposisi genom, komposisi dan fungsi gen, dan pemetaan genetik (gen/QTL) unggul jarak pagar. Pemahaman ini diperlukan agar genetika tanaman jarak pagar dapat dimanipulasi secara sistematis. Teknologi rekayasa genetika potensial diaplikasikan untuk perbaikan: arsitektur tanaman, karakter agronomis, kualitas biji, produktivitas, dan kualitas minyak. Tujuan tulisan ini ialah mengulas tentang pendekatan bioteknologi dan genomika untuk perbaikan genetik tanaman jarak pagar. Aplikasi bioteknologi memungkinkan untuk mempercepat program pemuliaan tanaman jarak pagar. Dengan bahan tanaman unggul, jarak pagar dapat dibudidayakan sehingga bermanfaat secara ekonomis dengan mutu minyak yang cocok sebagai bahan baku biodiesel.


Keywords


Jatropha curcas; genomika; gen dan QTL; transformasi genetik; pemuliaan berbantuan marka.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ambrosi, D.G., Galla, G., Purelli, M., Barbi, T., Fabbri, A. &

Lucretti, S. (2010) DNA markers and FCSS analyses

shed light on the genetic diversity and reproductive

strategy of Jatropha curcas L. Diversity, 2, 810–836.

Amstrong, E.L. & Nicol, H.I. (1991) Reducing the height in

rapeseed with growth regulators. Australian Journal of

Experimental Agriculture, 31, 245–250.

Basha, S.D. & Sujatha, M. (2007) Inter- and intrapopulation

variability of Jatropha curcas (L.)

characterized by RAPD and ISSR markers and

development of population-specific SCAR markers.

Euphytica, 156 (3), 375–386.

Biabani, A., Rafii, M.Y., Saleh, G., Shabanimofrad, M. &

Latif, M.A. (2012) Combining ability analysis and

evaluation of heterosis in Jatropha curcas L. F1-hybrids.

Australian Journal of Crop Science, 6, 1030–1036.

Biello, D. (2009) Green fuels for jets. Scientific American,

, 68–69.

Carvalho, C.R., Clarindo, W.R., Praca, M.M., Arau´jo, F.S.

& Carels, N. (2008) Genome size, base composition

and karyotype of Jatropha curcas L., an important

biofuel plant. Plant Science, 174 (6), 613–617.

Chan, A.P., Crabtree, J., Zhao, Q., Lorenzi, H., Orvis, J.,

Puiu, D., Meleke-Berhan, A., Jones, K.M., Redman, J.,

Chen, G. et al. (2010) Draft genome sequence of the

oilseed species Ricinus communis. Nature

Biotechnology, 28 (9), 951–956.

Contran, N., Chessa, L., Lubino, M., Bellavite, D., Roggero,

P.P. & Enne, G. (2013) State of the art of the Jatropha

curcas productive chain: From sowing to biodiesel and

by-products. Industrial Crops and Products, 42, 202–

Dehgan, B. & Webster, G.L. (1978) Three new species of

Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) from Western Mexico.

Madron, 25, 30–39.

Dehgan, B. & Webster, G.L. (1979) Morphology and

infrageneric relationships of the genus Jatropha

(Euphorbiaceae). University of California Publications in

Botany, 74, 1–73.

Dehgan, B. (1984) Phylogenetic significance of interspecific

hybridization in Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae). Systematic

Botany 9, 467–78.

Dehgan, B. & Schutzman, B. (1994) Contribution towards a

monograph of neutropical Jatropha: Phonetic and

phylogenetic analyses. Annals of the Missouri Botanical

Garden, 81, 349–367.

Deore, A.C. & Johnson, T.S. (2008) High-frequency plant

regeneration from leaf-disc cultures of Jatropha curcas

Pendekatan Bioteknologi dan Genomika untuk Perbaikan Genetik Tanaman Jarak Pagar: I M. TASMA

L.: An important biodiesel plant. Plant Biotechnology

Reports, 2, 7–11.

Dewi, I.S., Arisanti, Y., Purwoko, B.S., Hariyadi & Syukur,

M. (2013) Keragaman genetik beberapa genotipe jarak

pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) berdaya hasil tinggi

berdasarkan karakter morfologi, agronomi, dan isozim.

Jurnal AgroBiogen, 9 (1), 28–38.

Dewi, I.S., Nindita, A., Purwoko, B.S. & Efendi, D. (2012)

Induksi tunas pada kotiledon dan hipokotil tanaman

jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) melalui organogenesis

tak langsung. Jurnal AgroBiogen, 8 (3), 89–96.

Dias, L.A., Missio, R.F. & Dias. D.C. (2012) Antiquity,

botany, origin, and domestication of Jatropha curcas

(Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for

biodiesel production. Genetic and Molecular Research,

, 2719–2728.

Esumi, T., Tao, R. & Yonemori, K. (2008) Expression

analysis of the LFY and TFL1 homologs in floral buds of

Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) and quince

(Cydonia oblonga Mill.). Journal of the Japanese

Society for Horticultural Science, 77 (2), 128–136.

Fukuhara, S., Muakrong, N., Kikuchi, S., Tanya, P., Sassa,

H., Koba, T. & Srinives. P. (2016) Cytological

characterization of an interspecific hybrid in Jatropha

and its progeny reveals preferential uniparental

chromosome transmission and interspecific

translocation. Breeding Science, 66, 838–844.

Gaudin, V., Vrain, T. & Jouanin, L. (1994) Bacterial genes

modifying hormonal balances in plants. Plant

Physiology and Biochemistry, 32, 11–29.

Giibitz, G.M., Mittelbach, M. & Trabi. M. (1999). The

exploitation of the tropical oil seed plant Jatropha

curcas L. Bioresource Technology, 67, 73–82.

Guimarães, E.P., Ruane, J., Scherf, B.D., Sonnino, A. &

Dargie, J.D. (2007) Marker-assisted selection: Current

status and future perspectives, in crops, livestock,

forestry, and fish. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture

Organization.

Hartati, R.S. (2008) Variasi tanaman jarak pagar dari satu

sumber benih satu genotipe. Infotek Jarak Pagar, 3 (1), 1.

Hasnam. (2006) Variasi Jatropha curcas L. Infotek Jarak

Pagar, 1 (2).

Heller, J. (1996) Physic nut. Jatropha curcas L. Promoting

the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected

crops. Rome, International Plant Genetic Resources

Institute.

Jha, T.B., Mukherjee, P. & Datta. M.M. (2007) Somatic

embryogenesis in Jatropha curcas Linn., an important

biofuel plant. Plant Biotechnolology Reports, 1, 135–

Jiang, H., Wu, P., Zhang, S. & Song, C. (2012) Global

analysis of gene expression profiles in developing

physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds. PLoS ONE, 7,

e36522. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036522.

King, A.J., He, W., Cuevas, J.A., Freudenberger, M.,

Ramiaramanana, D. & Graham, I.A. (2009) Potential of

Jatropha curcas as a source of renewable oil and

animal feed. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 2897–

King, A.J., Montes, L.R., Clarke, J.G., Affleck, J., Li, Y.,

Witsenboer, H., Vossen, E.V.D., Linde, P.V.D., Tripathi,

Y., Tavares, E. et al. (2013) Linkage mapping in the

oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus

controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which

cause seed toxicity. Plant Biotechnology Journal,

, 986–996.

Knothe, G. (2008) Designer biodiesel: Optimizing fatty ester

composition to improve fuel properties. Energy Fuels,

, 1358–1364.

Krishnamurthy, L., Zaman-Allah, M., Marimuthu, S., Wani,

S.P. & Rao, A.V.R.K. (2012) Root growth in Jatropha

and its implication for drought adaptation. Biomass and

Bioenergy, 39, 247–252.

Li, M.R., Li, H.Q. & Wu, G.J. (2006) Study on factors

influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of

Jatropha curcas. Journal of Molecular Cell Biology,

, 83–89.

Li, M., Li, H., Jiang, H., Pan, X. & Wu, G. (2008)

Establishment of an Agrobacterium-mediated cotyledon

disc transformation method for Jatropha curcas. Plant

Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 92, 173–181.

Liljegren, S.J., Ditta, G.S., Eshed, Y., Savidge, B., Bowman,

J. & Yanofsky, M.F. (2000) SHATTERPROOF MADSbox

genes control seed dispersal in Arabidopsis.

Nature, 404, 766–770.

Liu, P., Wang, C., Li, L., Sun, F. & Yue, G. (2011) Mapping

QTLs for oil traits and eQTLs for oleosin genes in

Jatropha. BMC Plant Biology, 11, 132–141.

Maghuly, F. & Laimer, M. (2013) Jatropha curcas, a biofuel

crop: Functional genomics for understanding metabolic

pathways and genetic improvement. Biotechnology

Journal 8, 1172–1182.

Martin, M. & Montes, J.M. (2015) Quantitative genetic

parameters of agronomic and quality traits in a global

germplasm collection reveal excellent breeding

perspectives for Jatropha curcas L. Global Change

Biology Bioenergy, 7, 1335–1343.

Montes, J.M., Technow, F., Bohlinger, B. & Becker, K.

(2013) Seed quality diversity, trait associations and

grouping of accessions in Jatropha curcas L. Industrial

Crops and Product, 51, 178–185.

Montes, J.M., Technow, F., Martin, M. & Becker. K. (2014)

Genetic diversity in Jatropha curcas L. assessed with

SSR and SNP markers. Diversity 6, 551–566.

Openshaw, K. (2000) A review of Jatropha curcas: An oil

plant of unfulfilled promise. Biomass Bioenergy 19,

–15.

Pamidiamarri, D.V.N.S., Pandya, N., Reddy, M.P. &

Radhakrishnan, T. (2008) Comparative study of

interspecific genetic divergence and phylogenic analysis

of genus Jatropha by RAPD and AFLP. Molecular

Biology Reports, 36 (5), 901–907.

Peng, J., Richards, D.E., Hartley, N.M., Murphy, G.P.,

Devos, K.M., Flintham, J.E., Beales, J., Fish, L.J.,

Worland, A.J., Pelica, F. et al. (1999) Green revolution

genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators.

Nature, 400, 256–261.

Qu, J., Mao, H.Z., Chen, W. & Gao, S.Q. (2012)

Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants

with increased levels of seed oleic acid. Biotechnology

for Biofuels, 5, 10–16.

Rijzaani, H., Lestari, P., Tasma, I.M. & Priyatno, T.P. (2016)

Pusat genom komoditas pertanian Indonesia. Warta

Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, 8 (4), 15–16.

Rosado, T.B., Laviola, B.G., Faria, D.A., Pappas, M.R.,

Bhering, L.L. & Quirino. B. (2010) Molecular markers

reveal limited genetic diversity in a large germplasm

collection of the biofuel crop Jatropha curcas L. in

Brazil. Crop Science, 50, 2372–2382.

Sabandar, C.W., Ahmat, N., Jaafar, F.M. & Sahidin, I.

(2013) Medicinal property, phytochemistry and

pharmacology of several Jatropha species

(Euphorbiaceae): A review. Phytochemistry, 85, 7–29.

Sato, S., Hirakawa, H., Isobe, S., Fukui, E., Watanabe, A.,

Kato, M., Kawashima, K., Minami, C., Muraki, A.,

Nakazaki, N. et al. (2011) Sequence analysis of the

genome of an oil-bearing tree, Jatropha curcas L. DNA

Research, 1, 65–76.

Satyawan, D. & Tasma, I.M. (2011a) Genetic diversity

analysis of Jatropha curcas provenances assessed with

randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Jurnal

AgroBiogen, 7 (1), 47–55.

Satyawan, D. & Tasma, I.M. (2011b) DNA markers

applicable for genetic mapping of Jatropha curcas

genome. Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah dan Aneka

Tanaman Industri, 2 (3), 411–419.

Schmutz, J., Cannon, S.B., Schlueter, J., Ma, J., Mitros, T.,

Nelson, W., Hyten, D.L., Song, Q., Thelen, J.J., Cheng,

J. et al. (2010) Genome sequence of the paleopolyploid

soybean. Nature, 463, 178–183.

Schnable, P.S., Ware, D., Fulton, R.S., Stein, J.C., Wei, F.,

Pasternak, S., Liang, C., Zhang, J., Fulton, L., Graves,

T.A. et al. (2009) The B73 maize genome: Complexity,

diversity, and dynamics. Science, 326, 1112–1115.

Singh, R., Ong-Abdullah, M., Low, E.T.L., Manaf, M.A.A.,

Rosli, R., Nookiah, R., Ooi, C.L.L., Ooi, S.E., Chan,

K.L., Halim, M.A. et al. (28 authors) (2013) Oil palm

genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile

species in old and new worlds. Nature, 500, 335–339.

Sujatha, M. & Mukta. N. (1996) Morphogenesis and plant

regeneration from tissue cultures of Jatropha curcas.

Plant Cell, Tissue, and Organ Culture, 44, 135–141.

Sujatha, M., Makkar, H.P.S. & Becker, K. (2005) Shoot bud

proliferation from axillary nodes and leaf sections of

nontoxic Jatropha curcas L. Plant Growth Regulation,

, 83–90.

Sujatha, M., Reddy, T.P. & Mahasi, M. (2008) Role of

biotechnological interventions in the improvement of

castor (Ricinus communis L.) and Jatropha curcas L.

Biotechnology Advances, 26 (5), 424–435.

Sun, F., Liu, P., Ye, J. & Lo, L.C. (2012) An approach for

Jatropha improvement using pleiotropic QTLs regulating

plant growth and seed yield. Biotechnology for Biofuels,

, 42–53.

Sunil, N., Kumar, V., Sujatha, M., Rao, G.R. & Varaprasad,

K.S. (2013) Minimal descriptors for characterization and

evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. germplasm for

utilization in crop improvement. Biomass & Bioenergy,

, 239–249.

Tar, M.M., Tanya, P. & Srinives, P. (2011) Heterosis of

agronomic characters in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.).

Kasetsart Journal-Natural Science, 45, 583–593.

Tasma, I.M., Warsun, A., Satyawan, D., Pardal, S.J. &

Slamet (2011) Genetic mapping of SSR markers in

eight soybean chromosomes based on F2 population

B3462 × B3293. Jurnal AgroBiogen, 7 (2), 69–75.

Tasma, I.M., Satyawan, D., Rijzaani, H. & Utami. D.W.

(2012) Pembentukan empat peta genetik sawit, jarak

pagar, padi, dan kedelai, serta identifikasi marka SNP

kakao dan sapi. Laporan Akhir Penelitian BB Biogen

Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan

Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian.

Tasma, I.M. (2015) Pemanfaatan teknologi sekuensing

genom untuk mempercepat program pemuliaan tanaman.

Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 34 (4), 159–168.

Tasma, I.M. (2016a) Resekuensing genom, metode baru

karakterisasi variasi SDG tanaman secara komprehensif

mendukung akselerasi pemuliaan tanaman. Warta

Biogen, 12 (1), 2–6.

Tasma, I.M. (2016b) Pemanfaatan teknologi genomika dan

transformasi genetik untuk meningkatkan produktivitas

kelapa sawit. Perspektif, 15 (1), 51–73.

Tasma, I.M. (2016c) Aplikasi teknologi DNA untuk

akselerasi program pemuliaan ketahanan tanaman

kakao terhadap hama dan penyakit utama. Jurnal

Litbang Pertanian, 35 (4), 155–166.

Varshney, R.K., Nayak, S.N., May, G.D. & Jackson, J.A.

(2009) Next-generation sequencing technologies and

their implications for crop genetics and breeding.

Trends in Biotechnology, 9, 522–530

Wang, C.M., Liu, P., Yi, C., Gu, K., Sun, F., Li, L., Lo, L.C.,

Liu, X., Feng, F., Lin, G. et al. (2011) A first generation

microsatellite and SNP-based linkage map of Jatropha.

PLoS ONE, 6 (8), e23632. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.

Wen, M., Wang, H., Xia, Z., Zou, M., Lu, C. & Wang, W.

(2010) Development of EST-SSR and genomic-SSR

markers to assess genetic diversity in Jatropha curcas

L. BMC Research Notes, 3, 42.

Wijaya, A., Surahman, M., Susantidiana, S. & Lakitan, B.

(2014) Genetic relationships among Indonesian

Jatropha curcas L. accessions selected, crossings, and

seed oil yield of their progenies. Chiang Mai Journal of

Science, 41 (5.1), 1109–1120.

Wu, P., Zhou, C., Cheng, S., Wu, Z., Lu, W., Han, J., Chen,

Y., Chen, Y., Ni, P., Wang, Y. et al. (2015) Integrated

genome sequence and linkage map of physicnut

(Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The Plant

Journal, 81, 810–821.

Wurdack, K.J., Hoffmann, P. & Chase, M.W. (2005)

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of uniovulate

Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae sensu ıtrict) using

plastid RBCL and TRNL-F DNA sequences. American

Journal of Botany, 92, 1397–1420.

Yamaguchi, S., Sun, T.P., Kawaide, H. & Kamiya, Y. (1998)

The GA2 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes entkaurene

synthase of gibberellin. Plant Physiology, 116,

–1278.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v13n2.2017.p123-136

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal AgroBiogen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


         


P-ISSN : 1907-1094
E-ISSN : 2549-1547


Jurnal AgroBiogen

Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

Jl. Tentara Pelajar 3A, Bogor 16111
Jawa Barat, Indonesia
Telp.: (0251) 8339793, 8337975
Faks.: (0251) 8338820
E-mail: jurnal.agrobiogen@gmail.com
Situs: http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id



View My Stats