Evaluasi Keragaman Genetik Jagung Inbrida Berdasarkan Sepuluh Marka Simple Sequence Repeat

Sutoro Sutoro, Puji Lestari, Andari Risliawati, Kristianto Nugroho, R. Neni Iriany

Abstract


Keragaman genetik jagung inbrida diperlukan untuk mendapatkan jagung hibrida yang berpotensi hasil tinggi. Keragaman inbrida dapat dievaluasi melalui analisis molekuler dengan marka simple sequence repeat (SSR). Tujuan  enelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi keragaman genetik jagung inbrida yang berlatar belakang genetik berbeda dengan marka SSR dan mengelompokkannya
sebagai panduan untuk pembentukan jagung hibrida. Sebanyak sepuluh marka SSR digunakan untuk mengelompokkan 32 jagung inbrida yang memiliki latar belakang genetik yang berbeda. Analisis dilakukan di Laboratorium Biologi
Molekuler, Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian, pada bulan Maret 2017. Data polimorfisme SSR pada jagung inbrida dianalisis secara statistik dan filogeninya menggunakan perangkat lunak NTSYS. Hasil analisis keragaman genetik menunjukkan adanya perbedaan antarinbrida, termasuk inbrida yang dihasilkan dari satu populasi jagung bersari bebas. Total sepuluh marka SSR mampu membedakan alel homozigot dan heterozigot jagung inbrida. Dari hasil pengelompokan jagung inbrida pada tingkat kesamaan 68% diperoleh dua klaster. Klaster pertama terdiri atas 30 inbrida, sedangkan klaster kedua hanya terdiri atas inbrida Al-46 dan 22-9-5-4-17-5. Pasangan inbrida dengan jarak genetik terjauh adalah inbrida 22-9-5-4-17-5 dan 23-4-9-7-2-9, dan inbrida CML161/Nei 9008 dan 22-9-5-4-17-5. Inbrida tersebut potensial untuk dijadikan sebagai tetua dalam menghasilkan hibrida karena jarak genetiknya yang relatif jauh.


Keywords


Jagung; SSR; keragaman genetik; inbrida.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v13n2.2017.p83-90

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