Gen dan QTL Pengendali Umur pada Kedelai

I Made Tasma

Abstract


Traits that control time of flowering and
maturity in soybean determine harvesting time of a soybean
cultivar. In Indonesia, early maturing soybean cultivars are
important at short period growing seasons due to the water
shortage in dry planting season. Shorter period of growing
season would increase the crop harvest index. Genetic
diversity of the present soybean germplasm collection is
low. Diversity improvement through introduction from
countries with four seasons faced difficulty due to
differences in growth adaptability. Technology for developing
germplasm with a broader adaptation will facilitate
germplasm movement from a more diverse environmental
growth. The objective of this review was to describe how
the time of flowering and maturity are controlled in soybean.
The review is supported by flowering time mechanism of
the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as the genetics of
flowering time has been intensively studied in this model
plant. Transition from vegetative to reproductive development
is the outcome of the activation of genes responsible
for floral organ formation. Initial activation is generally the
result of environmental cues indicating the appropriate time
to flower. Studies from Arabidopsis showed that transition
from vegetative to reproductive stage is complex involving
many genes and several genetic pathways. In soybean, time
of flowering and maturity are controlled by at least nine
genes, E1 to E8 and Dt1. The genes interact with daylength
and temperature. Major and minor QTLs controlling the
traits were identified using various mapping populations.
The major QTLs were detected at various populations with
diverse genetic backgrounds tested at diverse environmenttal
conditions. Some of the QTLs were associated with the E
genes and some others were not. Several Arabidopsis
flowering gene homologous sequences were also mapped
on the soybean genome. The E gene markers and the QTLs
with large effect for reproductive traits are breeder targets
for breeding and development of soybean photoperiod
insensitive germplasm. Genes for flowering time isolated
from Arabidopsis can be used to develop transgenic
soybean with broader adaptation. Technology for development
of soybean germplasm with broader adaptation will
facilitate the soybean germplasm movement from diverse
environmental growth conditions to support systematic and
sustainable national soybean breeding programs.


Keywords


Soybean; time of flowering; maturity; photoperiod; QTL.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v9n2.2013.p85-96

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P-ISSN : 1907-1094
E-ISSN : 2549-1547


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