Keragaman Genetik Beberapa Genotipe Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) Berdaya Hasil Tinggi Berdasarkan Karakter Morfologi, Agronomi, dan Isozim

Iswari S Dewi, Yusie Arisanti, Bambang S. Purwoko, Hariyadi Hariyadi, M. Syukur

Abstract


The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. from the
family Euphorbiaceae for the production of biofuel is rapidly
growing. The research objective was to determine genetic
variation of several high yielding physic nuts based on their
morphology, agronomy, and isozyme characters. The
research used Completely Randomized Design with three
replications. The treatment was consisted of 8 genotypes i.e.
IP-1A, IP-1M, IP-2P, Lombok Timur, Lombok Tengah,
Lombok Barat, Sumbawa, and Bima. Analysis of isozyme of
the eight genotypes was also conducted according to 5
enzyme systems, i.e. peroksidase, esterase, aspartat
aminotransferase, malat dehidrogenase, and alcohol
dehidrogenase. Observation was done on qualitative and
quantitative characters as well as banding pattern derivedisozymes.
The results showed that genetic variation was low
when based on qualitative characters and isozyme (0-25%)
but relatively high when based on selected quantitative
characters analysis (17-81%). Analysis of combined
qualitative, quantitative, and isozyme characters still gave
low genetic variation (6-33%). Based on the quantitative
characters at similarity coefficient of 46% the genotypes can
be devided into three clusters. Improved population
genotypes, i.e. IP-1A, IP-1M, and IP-2P were placed in 3
different clusters, while other genotypes from NTB area
were grouped in the same cluster. Therefore, selection
among population of the same ecotype based on agronomic
characters such as yield components, yield and oil content
was suitable in Jatropha improvement, especially when
genetic variation was low. Furthermore, introduction,
mutation and crossing are suggested to increase genetic
variation of current Jatropha collection.


Keywords


Jatropha curcas L.; morphology; agronomy; isozymes; genetic variation.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v9n1.2013.p28-38

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P-ISSN : 1907-1094
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