Kultur Antera untuk Percepatan Perakitan Varietas Padi di Indonesia

Iswari S Dewi, Bambang S. Purwoko

Abstract


Rice is a staple
food crop in Indonesia, while the need is increasing due to
high rice consumption as well as population increase. The
problems can be solved through increase of national rice
production. Productivity of lowland and upland should be
increased intensively and other potential dry area outside
Java and Bali Islands should be considered for extending the
area of production. Recently, high yielding variety such as
semi dwarf variety, hybrid rice, and new plant type of rice
were being developed by Indonesian breeders. However,
new method is needed to complement conventional
breeding method in order to accelerate rice breeding.
Anther culture is one of in vitro culture techniques that can
be used to accelerate the obtainment of pure lines through
doubled-haploids (DHs) regenerated at first generation of
culture for less than one year. Thus, application of anther
culture in conventional breeding will increase the efficiency
of selection process as well as reducing the cost for labour,
land and breeder’s time. The obtainment of green plantlets
derived from anther culture of indica rice subspecies has
been improved by the addition of 1 mM putrescine into
induction and regeneration media. Recently, several upland
rice lines tolerant to abiotic stresses (i.e. low light intensity
and aluminum toxicity) and biotic stresses (i.e. leaf and
neck blast), several lowland rice/paddy lines tolerant to
biotic stresses (i.e. bacterial leaf blight and blast), and
several hybrid parental lines (i.e. male sterile, maintainer
and restorer) were obtained in 2-3 years from several rice
breeding program involving anther culture. However,
potential use anther culture to provide unique genetic
material for mapping populations for use in functional
genomics and molecular breeding has not been explored.
The results indicated that anther culture is a feasible
technology that can be used for accelerating rice breeding
program in Indonesia.


Keywords


Rice; anther culture; dihaploid.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v8n2.2012.p78-88

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