Keragaman Genetik 50 Aksesi Plasma Nutfah Kedelai Berdasarkan Sepuluh Penanda Mikrosatelit

Chaerani Chaerani, Nurul Hidayatun, Dwinita Wikan Utami

Abstract


Genetic Diversity of 50 Soybean Accessions Based on Ten
Microsatellite Markers. Chaerani, Nurul Hidayatun, and
Dwinita W. Utami. Soybean accessions in germplasm
collection have increased in number as a result of
exploration, introduction as well as development or release
of new commercial varieties. This complicates accurate and
reliable evaluation of an accession for purposes of utilization
in breeding program and discrimination of a new
commercial variety for purposes of plant variety protection.
The aims of this study were to identify the genetic diversity
of soybean germplasm to complement the existing
phenotypic database as the basis for efficient management
and accurate discrimination of commercial varieties, and to
identify potential parents for hybridizations. Fifty soybean
accessions consisting of 12 released varieties, 32 local
varieties, and 6 introductions were analyzed using
microsatellite DNA markers based on semi-automatic sizing
system. A total of 86 alleles were detected with the number
of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 16. Rare alleles were
detected at a rate of 53% which was shown by 68% of the
genotypes. Informativeness of the microsatellite markers as
measured by the average gene diversity (D) or
polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.60 and 0.58,
respectively. A heterozygosity level of 0.09 as detected by
seven loci was observed among 64% of the genotypes. The
average genetic distance among the genotypes was 0.56,
which indicated the relatively low polymorphism among the
analyzed soybean germplasm. Four microsatellites that
showed a high D or PIC value (over 0.75) were able to
discriminate between accession reliably. Each soybean
accession had different DNA microsatellite fingerprint which
can be used for accurate discrimination to complement the
previous conventional characterizations. UPGMA clustering
separated the 50 accessions into 10 major clusters, which
showed no clear pattern of clustering according to varietal
group or geographical origin. Genetic similarity data
identified five clusters and 15 genotypes with highest intercluster
or inter-genotype genetic distances which are
potential candidates to be exploited as parents in
hybridizations for development of new commercial varieties.


Keywords


DNA fingerprinting; microsatellite; automatic sizing; soybean genetic diversity; variety identification; genetic improvement

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v7n2.2011.p96-105

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P-ISSN : 1907-1094
E-ISSN : 2549-1547


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