Karakterisasi secara Morfologi Abnormalitas Embrio Somatik Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) dari Eksplan Daun

Nesti F Sianipar, Gustav A Wattimena, Hajrial Aswidinnoor, Maggy Thenawidjaya S, Nurita Toruan-Mathius,, Gale Ginting

Abstract


Morphological Characterization on Abnormalities of Oilpalm
(Elaeis guineensis Jacq) Embryo Somatic Generated
from Leaf Explant. Nesti F. Sianipar, Gustav A.
Wattimena, Hajrial Aswidinnoor, Maggy Thenawidjaya
S., Nurita Toruan-Mathius, and Gale Ginting. Somatic
embryogenesis is the development of somatic cells to form a
structure alike zygotic embryo direct or indirectly. Somatic
embryos from young leaf explants could be induced from
primary callus formed surrounding the palm-leaf rib. Embryogenic
callus will develop to be somatic embryos which
grew nonuniformly. Embryo somatic growth pattern of
globular, asymmetric heart shape, and cotyledon ary stage
produced different morphological variation. Morphological
variability of in vitro somatic embryos could be due to high
application of growth regulator 2,4-D at the beginning of
initiation, subculture frequency, loaded cells, and polysomic
cells from certain tissues. From the three clones used,
which were clone 638, 636, and 558, there were different
variation at each step of development stages, grouping
morphologically into normal and abnormal based on the
development of somatic embryos. The percentage of abnormality
from the three clone used was clone 27% (638), 30%
(636), and 46% (558). The normal somatic embryos at globular
stage were round and bipolar shaped; while the abnormal
embryos were oval and no bipolar. At heart-shape stage,
the normal somatic embryos had symmetrical polarized surface;
while the abnormal embryos had asymmetrical polarized
surface. At the cotyledon stage, the normal embryos
had monocot-tyledon; the abnormal ones were more than
one cotyledon.


Keywords


Elaeis guineensis; somatic embryogenesis; abnormality; morphology

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jbio.v3n1.2007.p32-39

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