Budi Tangendjaja


Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has become common techniques to estimate chemical composition of feed ingredient for poultry. Two experiments were performed: first was to compare the capability of NIRS system from three laboratories (E, A and T) to measure nutrient composition of soybean meal (SBM); and the second was to evaluate nutrient composition and quality of 59 samples of SBM from Argentine, Brazil and US using NIRS from T-laboratory. Thirty samples of SBM was used in the first study and the result showed that all NIRS systems were able to estimate proximate, amino acids, metabolizable energy (ME) and carbohydrate components. The second experiment indicated that there were some differences in proximate composition (especially protein), total amino acids and digestible amino acids among SBM from different origins. Brazilian SBM had 2% higher protein and amino acid compared to US or Argentine SBM (P<0.05). However, US SBM had slightly higher ME (20 and 40 kcal kg-1) compared to Brazilian and Argentine SBM, respectively. ME is positively correlated with protein (0.50) and fat content (0.58) but negatively correlated with fiber (-0.74) and NSP (-0.61). Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that ME can be estimated using equation ME (kcal kg-1) = 75.7 – 21.0 x Fiber + 87.4 x Fat + 32.9 x Protein + 17.6 x NFE with reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.995). In conclusion NIRS can be used to estimate nutrient content of SBM. Brazilian SBM has higher protein and amino acids, but US SBM has slightly higher ME content.


NIRS; soybean meal; nutrient composition; energy value

Full Text:



Almeida, F.N., Htoo, J.K., Thomson, J. & Stein, H.H. (2014) Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs. Animal. [Online] 8 (10), 1594–1602. Available from: doi:10.1017/S175173111400144X.

Breene, W.M., Lin, S., Hardman, L. & Orf, J. (1988) Protein and oil content of soybeans from different geographic locations. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. [Online] 65 (12), 1927–1931. Available from: doi:10.1007/BF02546009.

Carpenter, K.J. & Clegg, K.M. (1956) The metabolizable energy of poultry feeding stuffs in relation to their chemical composition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. [Online] 7 (1), 45–51. Available from: doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740070109.

Carré, B., Prevotel, B. & Leclercq, B. (1984) Cell wall content as a predictor of metabolisable energy value of poultry feedingstuffs. British Poultry Science. [Online] 25 (4), Taylor & Francis Group, 561–572. Available from: doi:10.1080/00071668408454898.

De Coca-Sinova, A., Valencia, D.G., Jiménez-Moreno, E., Lázaro, R. & Mateos, G.G. (2008) Apparent ileal digestibility of energy, nitrogen, and amino acids of soybean meals of different origin in broilers. Poultry Science. [Online] 87 (12), 2613–2623. Available from: doi:10.3382/ps.2008-00182.

CVB (2004) Veevoedertabel (Livestock Feed Table). Lelystad, The Netherlands, Centraal Veevoeder Bureau.

Dolz, S. & de Blas, C. (1992) Metabolizable energy of meat and bone meal from Spanish rendering plants as influenced by level of substitution and method of determination. Poultry Science. [Online] 71 (2), 316–322. Available from: doi:10.3382/ps.0710316.

Farrell, D.J. (1999) In vivo and in vitro techniques for the assessment of the energy content of feed grains for poultry: a review. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 50, 881–888.

Fisher, C. (1982) Energy Values of Compound Poultry Feeds. Institute for Grassland & Animal Production. Midlothian, UK, Poultry Division, Roslin.

Frikha, M., Serrano, M.P., Valencia, D.G., Rebollar, P.G., Fickler, J. & Mateos, G.G. (2012) Correlation between ileal digestibility of amino acids and chemical composition of soybean meals in broilers at 21 days of age. Animal Feed Science and Technology. [Online] 178 (1–2), 103–114. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.09.002.

García-Rebollar, P., Cámara, L., Lázaro, R.P., Dapoza, C., Pérez-Maldonado, R. & Mateos, G.G. (2016) Influence of the origin of the beans on the chemical composition and nutritive value of commercial soybean meals. Animal Feed Science and Technology. [Online] 221, 245–261. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.07.007.

Grieshop, C.M. & Fahey, G.C. (2001) Comparison of quality characteristics of soybeans from Brazil, China, and the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [Online] 49 (5), 2669–2673. Available from: doi:10.1021/jf0014009.

Grieshop, C.M., Kadzere, C.T., Clapper, G.M., Flickinger, E.A., Bauer, L.L., Frazier, R.L. & Fahey, G.C. (2003) Chemical and nutritional characteristics of United States soybeans and soybean meals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [Online] 51 (26), 7684–7691. Available from: doi:10.1021/jf034690c.

Karr-Lilienthal, L.K., Grieshop, C.M., Merchen, N.R., Mahan, D.C. & Fahey, G.C. (2004) Chemical composition and protein quality comparisons of soybeans and soybean meals from five leading soybean-producing countries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [Online] 52 (10), 6193–6199. Available from: doi:10.1021/JF049795+.

Karr-Lilienthal, L.K., Grieshop, C.M., Spears, J.K. & Fahey, G.C. (2005) Amino acid, carbohydrate, and fat composition of soybean meals prepared at 55 commercial U.S. soybean processing plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [Online] 53 (6), 2146–2150. Available from: doi:10.1021/jf048385i.

Liu, Y.G., R. A. Swick & Creswell, D. (2012) Assessing AME and Digestible Amino Acids of Different Soybean Meals by NIRS and Broiler Performance - Engormix. In: Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium, Sidney 12-22 Februari 2012. Sidney, the Poultry Research Foundation of the University of Sydney and the Australian Branch of the World’s Poultry Science Association., pp.55–58.

Losada, B., García-Rebollar, P., Álvarez, C., Cachaldora, P., Ibáñez, M.A., Méndez, J. & De Blas, J.C. (2010) The prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of oil seeds and oil seed by-products for poultry from its chemical components, in vitro analysis or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Animal Feed Science and Technology. [Online] 160 (1–2), 62–72. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.06.012.

Mateos, G.G. (2017) Have you Checked your Soybean ´ s Pedigree Lately ?: Evaluating the Nutritive Value of SBM in Poultry Diets. (January), Atanta, U.S. Sybean Export Coucil.

Miller-Gravin, J. & Naeve, S. (2018) U . S . Soybean Quality Report-2018.2018 [Online] (December 2018), pp.1–5. Available from: year’s report has been,representative soybean samples from farmers.&text=Compared with the long-term,protein and similar in oil. [Accessed: 5 May 2020].

NRC (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th revise. Washington DC, National Academy of Science. National Academic Press.

Owens, B., McCann, M.E.E., McCracken, K.J. & Park, R.S. (2009) Prediction of wheat chemical and physical characteristics and nutritive value by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. British Poultry Science. [Online] 50 (1), 103–122. Available from: doi:10.1080/00071660802635347.

Parsons, C.M., Hashimoto, K., Wedekind, K.J., Han Y. & Baker, D.H. (1992) Effect of overprocessing on availability of amino acids and energy in soybean meal. Poultry Science. [Online] 71 (1), 133–140. Available from: doi:10.3382/ps.0710133.

Piper, E.L. & Boote, K.I. (1999) Temperature and cultivar effects on soybean seed oil and protein concentrations. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. [Online] 76 (10), 1233–1241. Available from: doi:10.1007/s11746-999-0099-y.

Ravindran, V., Abdollahi, M.R. & Bootwalla, S.M. (2014) Nutrient analysis, metabolizable energy, and digestible amino acids of soybean meals of different origins for broilers. Poultry Science. [Online] 93 (10), 2567–2577. Available from: doi:10.3382/ps.2014-04068.

Roberts, C.., Stuth, J. & Flinn, P. (2004) Analysis of forages and feedstuffs.In: Roberts,C.. et al. (eds.) Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Agriculture. Madison, IL, USA, American Society of Agronomy, Inc., pp.231–264.

SAS Institute Inc (2009) SAS 9.1. North Carolina, SAS Publishing, p.5060

Sibbald, I.R., Price, K. & Barrette, J.P. (1980) True metabolizable energy values for poultry of commercial diets measured by bioassay and predicted from chemical data. Poultry science. [Online] 59 (4), 808–811. Available from: doi:10.3382/ps.0590808.

Stein, H.H. (2019) Soybean Processing and How to Avoid Overprocessing. In: Procceding Feed Technology and Animal Nutrition Conference. Clark Philippines, USSEC Singapore, p.52.

Thakur, M. & Hurburgh, C.R. (2007) Quality of US soybean meal compared to the quality of soybean meal from other origins. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. [Online] 84 (9), 835–843. Available from: doi:10.1007/s11746-007-1107-8.

Valdes, E. V & Leeson, S. (1994) Measurement of metabolizable energy, gross energy, and moisture in feed grade fats by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Poultry Science. 73, 163–171.

Valdes, E.V. & Leeson, S. (1992a) Near infrared reflectance analysis as a method to measure metabolizable energy in complete poultry feeds. Poultry Science. [Online] 71 (7), 1179–1187. Available from: doi:10.3382/ps.0711179.

Valdes, E.V. & Leeson, S. (1992b) Research note: The use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to measure metabolizable energy in poultry feed ingredients. Poultry Science. [Online] 71 (9), 1559–1563. Available from: doi:10.3382/ps.0711559.

Waldroup, P.W., Ramsey, B.E., Hellwig, H.M. & Smith, N.K. (1985) Optimum processing for soybean meal used in broiler diets. Poultry Science. [Online] 64 (12), 2314–2320. Available from: doi:10.3382/ps.0642314.

Westgate, M.., Piper, E., Batchelort, W.. & Hurburgh, C. (2000) Effects of cultural environmental conditions during soybean growth on nutritive value of soy products.In: Drackley,J. (ed.) Soy in Animal Nutrition.

Savoy, IL, Federation of Animal Science Society, pp.75–89.

Wolf, R.B., Cavins, J.F., Kleiman, R. & Black, L.T. (1982) Effect of temperature on soybean seed constituents: Oil, protein, moisture, fatty acids, amino acids and sugars. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. [Online] 59 (5), 230–232. Available from: doi:10.1007/BF02582182.

World’s Poultry Science Association (1989) European Table of Energy Values for for Poutry Feedstuffs. 3rd Edition. Beekbergen, The Netherlands, Subcommittee Energy of the Working Group nr. 2 Nutrition of the European Federation of Branches of the World’s Poultry Science Association.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science (IJAS) by is licenced under a 

Publisher: Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development

Editorial Office:

Indonesian Institute for Agricultural Technology Transfer

Jalan Salak No. 22 Bogor-Indonesia




View Visitors Stats