Swasembada Beras Berkelanjutan: Dilema antara Stabilisasi Harga dan Distribusi Pendapatan

Sri Nuryanti

Abstract


Like other Asian countries, Indonesia tries to achieve rice self-sufficiency. To improve farmers’ competitiveness through agricultural investment and infrastructure, the government intervenes the rice market through subsidies, tariff import, and other support mechanisms for domestic producers. These interventions aims to improve farmers’ welfare and to maintain retail price. Rice is a staple food and it also has social and economic roles. Furthermore, rice is a political good. Rice self-sufficiency makes the country look improved and developed.  The government takes measures to achieve rice self-sufficiency. The study aims to review rice policy implementation along with the self-sufficiency achievement by elaborating policy intervention and its implication in the market. Results of the study showed that involvement of state-owned companies in rice market could minimize market failure, but it encouraged an oligopolistic market structure and biased rice policy toward certain interest group. Shifting orientation of rice policy from price stabilization to income distribution might encourage a better rice market toward sustainable rice self-sufficiency.

 

Abstrak

Indonesia hendak mencapai swasembada pangan khususnya beras sebagaimana negara Asia yang lain. Dalam rangka mendorong daya saing petani melalui investasi dan infrastruktur pertanian, pemerintah melakukan intervensi pasar beras melalui beragam subsidi, tarif, dan mekanisme bantuan lain untuk produsen domestik.  Intervensi ini pada dasarnya bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pendapatan produsen dan menjaga stabilitas harga di tingkat konsumen. Beras tidak saja berperan sebagai bahan makanan semata, melainkan juga mempunyai peran sosial dan ekonomi di dalam masyarakat. Peran tersebut membuat beras jauh lebih penting dibandingkan bahan pangan yang lain. Keyakinan bahwa dengan swasembada beras membuat negara tampak unggul dan maju. Oleh karena itu, berbagai kebijakan beras diimplementasikan guna mencapai target swasembada. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji ulang implementasi kebijakan perberasan dalam rangka pencapaian swasembada dengan menelaah intervensi kebijakan beserta implikasinya terhadap pasar. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa keterlibatan Badan Usaha Milik Negara di dalam pasar beras dapat mengurangi kegagalan pasar, meskipun keberadaannya membuat struktur pasar cenderung oligopolistik dan kebijakan beras menjadi bias kepada kelompok kepentingan tertentu. Pergeseran orientasi kebijakan beras dari stabilisasi harga ke distribusi pendapatan memungkinkan ke arah pasar beras yang lebih baik menuju swasembada beras yang berkelanjutan.


Keywords


income distribution; stabilization; rice; self-sufficiency; distribusi pendapatan; stabilisasi; beras; swasembada

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/fae.v35n1.2017.19-30

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