Kebijakan Insentif Untuk Petani Muda: Pembelajaran dari Berbagai Negara dan Implikasinya bagi Kebijakan di Indonesia

Sri Hery Susilowati

Abstract


English
Indonesia and many countries deal with decreased number of young farmers. Some measures are taken to attract youth to work as farmers through some incentive. This paper aims to review various incentive policies for young farmers in many countries and their effectiveness and their implications for Indonesia. This paper applies both descriptive analysis and cross tabulation methods. Success of financial aid programs to young farmers in developed countries is still pros and cons. In addition to the financial aid incentive policies, various supports are also provided in the developing countries for the same purpose. The implications for Indonesia to attract young generation to work in agricultural sector should be in accordance with characteristics of small farmers in this country. Learning from the experience of the government's financial aid policy to young farmers in developed countries and credit program policy for Indonesian farmers, interest rate subsidy is not the only policy instrument to attract young farmers to work in agriculture. Policies to facilitate young farmers' access to capital and land tenure are more essential besides improving business diversification in rural areas. The government should well manage industrial development in rural areas through agricultural programs integrated with other supporting services.


Indonesian
Dewasa ini Indonesia dan negara-negara di dunia menghadapi permasalahan menurunnya jumlah tenaga kerja muda pertanian. Fenomena aging farmers dan semakin berkurangnya tenaga kerja muda pertanian terjadi dalam tataran global. Upaya untuk menarik dan mempertahankan generasi muda petani menjadi usaha yang terus-menerus dilakukan di berbagai negara. Berbagai kebijakan insentif untuk petani muda telah dikembangkan di negara-negara maju untuk membantu mereka berkarir di sektor pertanian, khususnya pertanian on farm. Tujuan makalah adalah untuk melakukan review terhadap berbagai kebijakan insentif untuk petani muda di berbagai negara dan efektivitas kebijakan tersebut, serta implikasinya bagi Indonesia. Metode analisis dilakukan secara deskriptif dan tabulasi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa keberhasilan program-program bantuan finansial kepada petani muda di negara-negara maju masih bersifat  pro dan kontra. Selain kebijakan insentif yang bersifat bantuan finansial, juga diberikan bantuan dalam bentuk dukungan lain. Implikasi bagi Indonesia, untuk menarik tenaga kerja ke sektor pertanian perlu disesuaikan dengan karakteristik petani kecil. Belajar dari pengalaman kebijakan insentif negara-negara maju dan kebijakan di Indonesia, insentif subsidi bunga pinjaman bukan satu-satunya instrumen untuk menarik tenaga kerja muda ke pertanian. Kebijakan untuk mempermudah akses modal dan penguasaan lahan lebih diperlukan selain diversifikasi usaha di perdesaan. Untuk itu, pengembangan industri di perdesaan harus berjalan dengan baik dan didukung oleh program pertanian yang terintegrasi dengan layanan pendukung.

Keywords


incentive policy; scheme; early retirement; young farmer; kebijakan insentif; skema; pensiun dini; skema; petani muda

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/fae.v34n2.2016.103-123

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