Pergeseran dalam Indeks Kelaparan Global (Global Hunger Index) 2000-2017: Implikasi terhadap Kebijakan Pertanian, Pangan, dan Kualitas Sumber Daya Manusia Indonesia

Agus Pakpahan

Abstract


The main objective of this paper is to show that the concept of food security should not be separated from hunger given that measures, such as of food sufficiency per capita or household food purchasing power, cannot by themselves indicate the quality of human resources in one country.  There exists an X-factor between food sufficiency per capita on the one hand, and human resources quality on the other hand, that must be analysed. In 2017, the Global Hunger Index (GHI) values of 14 achieved by developing countries managed to match those of developed countries. This opens the opportunity, particularly for Indonesia, to re-examine non-income variables and establish policy frameworks to solve hunger. A key component to the issue is the persistent lack of animal protein consumption in Indonesia and elsewhere. This paper suggests that animal protein must be produced in a way that economically cheap and frees the production system from environmental deterioration and problems arising from antibiotic resistance.

 

Abstrak

Tujuan utama tulisan ini adalah untuk menunjukkan bahwa konsep ketahanan pangan tidak terlepas dari konsep kelaparan dimana konsep yang terakhir ini menguraikan dimensi kualitas sumber daya manusia. Ukuran kecukupan pangan per kapita atau daya beli pangan rumah tangga tidak dapat dengan sendirinya menunjukkan kualitas sumber daya manusia di satu negara. Di antara kecukupan pangan per kapita di satu sisi dan kualitas sumberdaya manusia di sisi lain terdapat faktor X.  Faktor X adalah faktor yang harus dipahami dalam upaya mengintegrasikan antara konsep ketahanan pangan dan kualitas sumberdaya manusia dalam waktu yang bersamaan. Keberhasilan 14 negara berkembang mencapai status Indeks Kelaparan Global (IKG) yang sama dengan IKG negara maju pada 2017 membuka peluang negara-negara berkembang, khususnya Indonesia, untuk mengambil pelajaran dari negara-negara tersebut dalam rangka memahami faktor X, khususnya faktor non-pendapatan, dalam rangka menemukan solusi kelaparan bagi Indonesia. Salah satu komponen strategis yang paling mendesak adalah bagaimana mengatasi kekurangan konsumsi protein hewani yang telah berlangsung selama ini. Namun demikian, sistem produksi protein hewani yang perlu dibangun adalah sistem produksi protein hewani yang terbebas dari masalah resistensi antibiotika dan keberlanjutan lingkungan hidup.


Keywords


food; hunger; food security; human resources; global hunger index; makanan; kelaparan; ketahanan makanan; kualitas sumber daya manusia; indeks kelaparan global

Full Text:

PDF

References


[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2014. Pengeluaran untuk konsumsi penduduk Indonesia. Buku I. Survey Sosial Ekonomi Nasional. Jakarta (ID): Badan Pusat Statistik.

Agrawal N, Chacko M, Ramachandran M, Thian M. 2011. Assessing the commercial viability of BSF as biodiesel and animal feed. University of California at Berkeley.Report Prepared for the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Prepared by from the University of California Berkeley, Haas School of Business. Berkeley (US): University of California Berkeley.

Ahmad R, Jilani G, Arshad M, Zahir ZA, Khalid A. 2007. Bio-conversion of organic wastes for their recycling in agriculture: an overview of perspectives and prospects. Annals of Microbiol. 57(4):471-479.

Banks IJ. 2014. To assess the impact of black soldier fly (hermetia illucens) larvae on faecal reduction in pit latrines. PhD thesis. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. doi:10.17037/PUBS.01917781

de Boer J, Helms M, Aiking H. 2006. Protein consumption and sustainability: diet diversity in EU-15. Ecological Econ. 59: 267-274.

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. Tanpa tahun. How to Feed the World in 2050. [Internet]. [cited 2017 Oct 20]. Availabel from: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/expert_paper/How_to_Feed_the_World_in_2050.pdf

Fabiosa JF. 2006. Westernization of the Asian diet: the case of rising wheat consumption in Indonesia. Iowa State University Digital Repository CARD Reports and Working Paper 4-2006. Iowa (US): Iowa State University.

FAO, 2009.Global agriculture towards 2050. High Level Expert Forum, Rome, 12-13 October 2009. Rome (IT): Food and Agriculture Organization.

Grasgruber P, Cacek J, Kalina T, Sebera M. 2014. Role of nutrition and genetics as key determinants of the positive height trend. Econ Human Biol. 15:81–100.

Harrell M, Ussery E, Greene-Cramer B, Ranjit N, Sharma SV. 2015. The influence of “westernization” on nutrition and physical activity behaviors of adolescents in New Delhi, India: are we exporting an epidemic of obesity? J of Applied Res on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, Volume 6 Issue 2 Nutrition and Food Insecurity Article 10.

Johnson GL. 1986. Research methodology for economists - philosophy and practice. New York (US): Macmillan.

Kearney J. 2010. Food consumption Trends and Drivers. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2010) 365: 2793-2807. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0149.

Lalander C, Diener S, Magri ME, Zurbrugg C. Lindstrom A, Vinneras B. 2013. Faesal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (hermetia illucens) - from a hygiene aspect. Sci Total Environ 458-460:312-8. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.033

Liu Q, Tomberlin JK, Brady JA, Sanford MR, Yu Z. 2008. Black soldier fly (diptera: stratiomidae) larvae reduce escherichia coli in dairy manure. Environ Entomol. 37(6): 525-530.

Pakpahan A. 2013. Membalik arus guremisasi petani dan pertanian. Orasi Profesor Riset, Badan Litbang, Kementrian Pertanian-Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Bogor, 13 Nopember 2013. Bogor (ID): Badan Litbang Pertanian.

Pakpahan A. Turning waste into healthy economy. Opinion. The Jakarta Post, March 7, 2015.

Pan A, Malik V, Hu FB. 2012. Exporting diabetes to Asia: the impact of western-style fast food. Circulation 126(2):163–165. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.115923.

Pimentel D, Pimentel M. 2006. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78: 660S-663. Dalam De Boer J, Helms M, Aiking H. Protein consumption and sustainability: diet diversity in EU-15. Ecological Econ. 59:267-274.

Pingali P. 2006. Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: Implications for research and policy. Food Policy 32:281–298.

Seale J, Regmi A, Bernstein J. 2003. International evidence on food consumption patterns. Technical Bulletin Number 1904, Electronic Report from The Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, October 2003). Washington, DC (US): United States Department of Agriculture.

Smill V. 2000. Feeding the world: a challenge for the twenty-first century. Cambridge, MA (UK): The MIT Press. Dalam De Boer J, Helms M, Aiking H. Protein consumption and sustainability: diet diversity in EU-15. Ecological Econ. 59:267-274.

van Zanden JL, Baten J, d’Ercole JM, Rijpma A, Timmer M. eds. 2014. How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820. OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/9789264214262-en.

von Grebmer K, Bernstein J, Brown T, Prasai N, Yohannes Y. 2017. Global hunger index 2017. Washington DC (US): IFPRI.

von Grebmer K, Bernstein J, Hossain N, Brown T, Prasai N, Yohannes Y, Patterson F, Sonntag A, Zimmerman SM, Towey O, Foley C. 2017. The concept of the global hunger index. [Internet]. [cited 2017 Mar 22]. Avalilable from: https://www.ifpri.org/publication/concept-global-hunger-index-1 http://IKG.ifpri.org/about/

Working H. 1943. Statistical laws of family expenditure. J Amer Stat. Assoc. 38(221): 43-56.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/fae.v35n2.2017.75-90

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Forum penelitian Agro Ekonomi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian
Kementerian Pertanian

Lt. III Gedung A. Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No.3B, Kota Bogor-16111
Telp. (0251) 8333964 ext. 300-301, Faks.  (0251) 8314496
E-mail   : faepsekp@gmail.com
Website: http://pse.litbang.pertanian.go.id

Website design


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.