Fenomena Penuaan Petani dan Berkurangnya Tenaga Kerja Muda serta Implikasinya bagi Kebijakan Pembangunan Pertanian

Sri Hery Susilowati

Abstract


English
Qualified human resources with a good commitment to develop agricultural sector is one of the determining factors toward sustainable agricultural development. However, agricultural development deals with significant issue especially reduction in the number of young farmers. This paper aims to review structural changes from perspective of aging farmer and declined number of young farmers in Indonesia and other countries. Specifically, this paper identifies various factors causing the changes and describes the policies needed to support young workers to enter agricultural sector. The method used in this paper is both descriptive analysis and cross tabulation. The results show that aging farmers and young farmers decline in Indonesia keep increasing. The phenomena are also found in other countries in Asia, Europe, America and Australia. Various factors causing lack interest of young workers in agricultural sector, namely less prestigious, high risk, less assurance, unstable earning. Other factors are small size land holding, limited non-agricultural diversification and agricultural processing activities in rural areas, slow farm management succession, and lack of incentive for young farmers. To attract youth to enter agricultural sector, it is necessary to transform youth’s perception that agricultural sector currently is interesting and promising. The government needs to development agricultural industry in rural areas, introduces technology innovation, offers special incentives for young farmers, modernizes agriculture, and conducts training and empowerment of young farmers.


Indonesian
Sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas dan memiliki komitmen membangun sektor pertanian merupakan salah satu faktor keberhasilan pembangunan pertanian berkelanjutan. Namun, pembangunan pertanian menghadapi permasalahan cukup serius, yaitu jumlah petani muda terus mengalami penurunan, baik secara absolut maupun relatif, sementara petani usia tua semakin meningkat. Tujuan makalah ini adalah melakukan review tentang perubahan struktural tenaga kerja pertanian dilihat dari fenomena aging farmer dan menurunnya jumlah tenaga kerja usia muda sektor pertanian di Indonesia dan di berbagai negara lainnya, mengidentifikasi berbagai faktor penyebab perubahan tersebut, serta kebijakan yang diperlukan untuk mendukung tenaga kerja muda masuk ke  sektor pertanian. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif dan tabulasi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa secara umum fenomena penuaan petani dan berkurangnya petani muda di Indonesia semakin meningkat. Kondisi seperti ini bukan hanya terjadi di Indonesia, namun juga di negara-negara lain di Asia, Eropa, dan Amerika.  Berbagai faktor penyebab menurunnya minat tenaga kerja muda di sektor pertanian, di antaranya citra sektor pertanian yang kurang bergengsi, berisiko tinggi, kurang memberikan jaminan tingkat, stabilitas, dan kontinyuitas pendapatan; rata-rata penguasaan lahan sempit; diversifikasi usaha nonpertanian dan industri pertanian di desa kurang/tidak berkembang; suksesi pengelolaan usaha tani rendah; belum ada kebijakan insentif khusus untuk petani muda/pemula; dan berubahnya cara pandang pemuda di era postmodern seperti sekarang. Strategi yang perlu dilakukan untuk menarik minat pemuda bekerja di pertanian antara lain mengubah persepsi generasi muda bahwa sektor pertanian merupakan sektor yang menarik dan menjanjikan apabila dikelola dengan tekun dan sungguh-sungguh, pengembangan agroindustri, inovasi teknologi,  pemberian insentif khusus kepada petani muda, pengembangan pertanian modern, pelatihan dan pemberdayaan petani muda, serta memperkenalkan pertanian kepada generasi muda sejak dini.

Keywords


aging farmer; structural change; work force; young farmer; penuaan petani; perubahan struktural; petani muda; tenaga kerja pertanian

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/fae.v34n1.2016.35-55

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