Agricultural Development Policy Strategies for Indonesia : Enhancing the Contribution of Agriculture to Poverty Reduction and Food Security

I Wayan Rusastra, nFN Sumaryanto, Pantjar Simatupang

Abstract


Indonesian
Tujuan penulisan paper ini adalah mendeskripsikan status ketahanan pangan nasional, kebijakan stra-tegis terkait dalam pengentasan kemiskinan, dan kebijakan pembangunan pertanian dalam rangka peningkatan kesejahteraan petani. Dalam satu dasa warsa terakhir ini, terdapat indikasi instabilitas ketahanan pangan yang ditunjukkan oleh adanya peningkatan ketergantungan impor pangan. Peningkatan kinerja pembangunan pertanian dan pedesaan diyakini akan memberikan kontribusi positif terhadap perbaikan aksesibilitas dan ketahanan pangan rumah tangga. Sedikitnya terdapat empat program pemerintah terkait dengan pengentasan kemiskinan, yaitu pengadaan beras bersubsidi, program padat karya, program pemberdayaan usaha mikro/ kecil/menengah, dan dana kompensasi kenaikan harga bahan bakar minyak untuk golongan miskin. Dalam rangka penguatan ketahanan pangan dan pengentasan kemiskinan, kebijakan pembangunan pertanian berikut ini perlu dipertimbangkan, yaitu : (1) Perluasan spektrum pengembangan irigasi dengan sasaran peningkatan produktivitas lahan beririgasi; (2) Pembaharuan arah kebijakan sebelumnya dalam rangka mengatasi kendala penawaran/produksi pertanian; (3) Reformulasi kebijakan proteksi harga melalui pembatasan impor, penegakan hukum, dan mengkaitkan program beras untuk  masyarakat miskin dengan program pengadaan gabah oleh pemerintah; (4) Mendorong diversifikasi pertanian dengan menjamin ketersediaan, akssessibilitas, dan perbaikan faktor pendukung pengembangan komoditas non-beras; dan (5) Ratifikasi perlakuan khusus (special product) bagi komoditas pertanian strategis, dan kembali kepada regulasi awal AoA-WTO berdasarkan pada komitmen dan Skedul XXI.


English
The objectives of the paper are to describe the state of national food security, related strategies for poverty eradication, and the respective policies on agricultural development for the benefit of the people. Over the last decade, the achievement of national food security depended on imports, indicating the instability of food security. The improvement of agricultural and rural development will contribute greatly to better food accessibility and a higher food security status of the population. There are at least four main government programs aimed at helping the poor, i.e. the provision of subsidized rice, public work programs, the empowerment program for micro-small-and medium enterprises, and low-income assistance funds to alleviate the burden of the poor. To strengthen food security and to eradicate the poverty, the following agricultural development policies should be taken into account, i.e.:  (1) The widening of the irrigation development spectrum with the main objective of improving irrigation productivity;  (2) To complete reversing the previous policy direction in order to eliminate agricultural supply constraint;  (3) The reformulation of price support policy implementing rice import through prohibition, strong law enforcement, and to integrate the rice program for the poor with the government procurement floor price policy;  (4) To enhance agricultural diversification through the availability, accessibility, and improvement of the supporting factors for non-rice commodities; (5) The ratification of special products for agricultural strategic commodities, in addition to return with the initial AoA-WTO regulation based on the commitment and Schedule of XXI

Keywords


pembangunan pertanian, ketahanan pangan, pengentasan kemiskinan, agricultural development, food security, poverty reduction

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/fae.v23n2.2005.84-101

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