Toxicity and Repellency of Tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia) Leaf Extract to Whitefly (Aleurodicus dugesii) on Plectranthus scutellarioides

Rahma Widyastuti, Dian Susanti, Retno Wijayanti

Abstract


Titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) is a wild species commonly found in the medium to high altidudes. Titonia leaves contain flavonoid compounds, alkaloids, and tannins that can act as a botanical fungicide and insecticides, antifeedant, as well as antioviposition. The bioactive content in the titonia leaf can be used to control whitefly (Aleurodicus dugesii), the important insect pest of iler (Plectranthus scutellarioides). The research was conducted to determine the toxicity and repellency of tithonia leaf extracts against whiteflies. Tithonia leaf was extracted with infundation method using water as a solvent.  The study was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with concentrations of tithonia leaves extract was 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg.l-1, repeated five times. The toxicity was tested by spraying water extract of T. diversifolia leaves on whiteflies (0.5 ml/adult insect). After 60 minutes of application, the whiteflies then were inserted into a chamber containing P. scutellarioides. The repellency was examined by multiple choice method using four P. scutellarioides plants sprayed with water extract of T. diversifolia leaves (250 ml/plant). The observation on toxicity performed everyday for seven days, while the repellency was observed for 48 hours. The extracts water of T. diversifolia leaf 4 mg.l-1 was toxic to whiteflies as contact poison with LC50 was 3.192 mg.l-1 and LT50 was 4.169 days. Moreover, concentration of 0.5 mg.l-1 was effective as repellent for whiteflies. Botanical insecticide containing water extract of T. diversifolia leaves can be used to prevent and control whiteflies attack on P. scutellarioides.

Keywords


Aleurodicus dugesii; Plectranthus scutellarioides; Tithonia diversifolia; repellency; toxicity

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v29n1.2018.1-8

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