EFEKTIVITAS FORMULA MINYAK CENGKEH, EUKALIPTUS, MIMBA, DAN SERAIWANGI TERHADAP PENYAKIT BUDOK PADA TANAMAN NILAM

Sri Yuni Hartati, NFN Sukamto, Nuri Karyani, NFN Zulhisnain

Abstract


Salah satu penyakit penting pada nilam adalah budok yang disebabkan oleh cendawan Synchytrium pogostemonis. Cendawan tersebut bersifat obligat parasit yang ditularkan melalui benih, tanah, dan air. Penelitian dalam rangka mengembangkan pestisida nabati berbasis minyak atsiri telah dilaksanakan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat pada tahun 2014. Tujuan penelitian adalah menguji efikasi formula tunggal minyak cengkeh, eukaliptus, mimba, dan seraiwangi terhadap penyakit budok. Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan endemik penyakit budok di Kebun Percobaan Cimanggu, Bogor, Jawa Barat. Formula tunggal minyak cengkeh, eukaliptus, mimba, dan seraiwangi diuji efikasinya terhadap penyakit budok. Dua jenis fungisida sintetik, benomil dan bubur bordo digunakan sebagai pembanding, serta air sebagai kontrol. Tanaman nilam sehat umur satu bulan disemprot dengan formula tunggal minyak atsiri (5 ml.l-1), benomil (3 g.l-1), bubur bordo (1 %), dan air setiap dua minggu sebanyak 5 kali. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok (7 perlakuan, 3 ulangan, 20 tanaman/ulangan). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan minyak mimba paling efektif dalam menekan kejadian penyakit budok (58,30 %) dibandingkan dengan seraiwangi (33,30 %), cengkeh (26,65 %), dan eukaliptus (8,30 %), tetapi efikasinya masih lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan benomil (100 %) dan bubur bordo (100 %). Aplikasi minyak mimba, benomil, dan bubur bordo selain dapat menghambat infeksi S. pogostemonis juga menghambat perkembangan penyakit budok. Minyak cengkeh dan seraiwangi tidak dapat menghambat infeksi S. pogostemonis, meskipun menghambat perkembangan penyakitnya. Minyak atsiri tersebut berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai pestisida nabati, tetapi efikasinya masih perlu ditingkatkan dengan cara membuat formula campuran dari minyak atsiri tersebut.

Keywords


Pogostemon cablin Benth.; minyak atsiri; pestisida nabati; penyakit budok

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbott, W.S. (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of economic entomology. 18 (2), The Oxford University Press, 265-267.

Akin, M., Aktumsek, A. & Nostro, A. (2010) Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn . and Myrtus communis L . growing in Northern Cyprus. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9 (4), 531-535.

Arshad, Z., Hanif, M.A., Qadri, R.W.K. & Khan, M.M. (2014) Role of Essential Oils in Plant Diseases Protection: A Review. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences. 6, 11-17.

Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D. & Idaomar, M. (2008a) Biological effects of essential oils--a review. Food Chem Toxicol. 46 (2), 446-475. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.106.

Beg, A.Z. & Ahmad, I. (2002) In vitro fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. 18, 313-314.

Burt, S. (2004) Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-a review. International journal of food microbiology. 94 (3), 223-253.

Chaieb, K., Hajlaoui, H., Zmantar, T., Kahla-Nakbi, A.B., Rouabhia, M., Mahdouani, K. & Bakhrouf, A. (2007) The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): A short review. Phytotherapy Research. 21 (6), pp. 501-506. doi:10.1002/ptr.2124.

Dayan, F.E. (2009) Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Natural products in crop protection. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 17 (12), Elsevier Ltd, 4022-4034. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2009.01.046.

Dubey, N.K., Shukla, R., Kumar, A., Singh, P. & Prakash, B. (2010) Prospects of botanical pesticides in sustainable agriculture. Current Science. 98 (4), 479-480.

Dubey, N.K., Srivastava, B. & Kumar, A. (2008) Current status of plant products as botanical pesticides in storage pest management. Journal of Biopesticides. 1 (2), 182-186.

Fu, Y., Zu, Y., Chen, L., Shi, X., Wang, Z., Sun, S. & Efferth, T. (2007) Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination. Phytotherapy Research. 21 (10), Wiley Online Library, 989-994.

Fishburn, A.G. (2013) An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulation: The Common-wealth and International Library: Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Elsevier. pp. 191.

Hartati, S.Y. (2012) Prospek Pengembangan minyak atsiri sebagai pestisida nabati. Jurnal Perspektif. 11 (1), 45-58.

Hyldgaard, M., Mygind, T. & Meyer, R.L. (2012) Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components. Frontiers in microbiology. 3, Frontiers Media SA. pp.12.

Joshi, V.K., Sharma, R. & Kumar, V. (2011) Antimicrobial activity of essential oils: A Review. Int. J. Fd. Ferm. Technol. 1 (2), 161-172.

Khater, H.F. (2012) Prospects of botanical biopesticides in insect pest management. Pharmacologia. 3 (12), 641-656.

Koul, O., Walia, S. & Dhaliwal, G.S. (2008) Essential oils as green pesticides: Potential and constraints. Biopesticides International. 4 (1), 63-84.

Lee, S.-O., Choi, G.-J., Jang, K.-S., Lim, H.-K., Cho, K.-Y. & Kim, J.-C. (2007) Antifungal activity of five plant essential oils as fumigant against postharvest and soilborne plant pathogenic fungi. The Plant Pathology Journal. 23 (2), Korean Society of Plant Pathology, 97-102.

Manohara, D., Wahyuno, D. & Sukamto (1994) Pengaruh tepung dan minyak cengkeh terhadap Phytopthora, Rigidoporus, dan Sclerotium.In: Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian dalam Rangka Pemanfaatan Pestisida Nabati, Bogor. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Balittro, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Balittro, hlm. 19-27.

Nakahara, K., Alzoreky, N.S., Yoshihashi, T., Nguyen, H.T.T. & Trakoontivakorn, G. (2013) Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass). Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly: JARQ. 37 (4), Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 249-252.

Pinto, E., Vale-Silva, L., Cavaleiro, C. & Salgueiro, L. (2009) Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. Journal of medical microbiology. 58 (11), Microbiology Society, 1454-1462.

Prasad, M.N.N., Bhat, S.S. & Sreenivasa, M.Y. (2010) Antifungal activity of essential oils against Phomopsis azadirachtae-the causative agent of die-back disease of neem. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 6 (1), 127-133.

Reichling, J., Schnitzler, P., Suschke, U. & Saller, R. (2009) Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties–an overview. Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine. 16 (2), 79-90.

Rosman, R. (2011) Pola Tanam Nilam. Bunga Rampai Nilam. Status Teknologi Hasil Penelitian Nilam. Balittro. hlm. 27-39.

Shapiro, R.S. (2012) Prevention of Vector Transmitted Diseases With Clove Oil Insect Repellent. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 27 (4), Elsevier Inc., 346-349. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2011.03.011.

Syakir, M., Supriadi & Wahyuno, D. (2008) Perkembangan teknologi pengendalian Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman (OPT) pada tanaman jahe dan nilam.In: Prosiding Seminar Nasional. Pengendalian Terpadu OPT Jahe dan Nilam. hlm. 15-30.

Tarranum, A., Malhotra, U.R., Ghildiyal, A. & Chandola, P. (2014) Eucalyptus globulus , Rosmarinus officinalis ) essential oils against some bacterial and fungal strains. cta. J. Biosci. 2, 49-52.

Tasma, I.M. & Wahid, P. (1988) Pengaruh mulsa dan pemupukan terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil nilam. Pember. Penelitian Tanaman. 15 (1-2), 34-41.

Tombe, M., Nurawan, A. & Sukamto (1994) Penelitian penggunaan daun cengkeh dalam pengendalian penyakit busuk batang panili.In: Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian dalam Rangka Pemanfaatan Pestisida Nabati, Bogor. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Balittro. Bogor, hlm. 28-36.

Tyagi, A.K. & Malik, A. (2011) Antimicrobial potential and chemical composition of Eucalyptusglobulus oil in liquid and vapour phase against food spoilage microorganisms. Food Chemistry. 126 (1), 228-235.

Wahyuno, D. (2010a) Pengelolaan Perbenihan Nilam Untuk Mencegah Penyebaran Penyakit Budok (Synchytrium pogostemonis). Perspektif. 9 (1), 1-11.

Wahyuno, D. (2010b) The life cycle of Synchytrium pogostemonis on Pogostemon cablin. Microbiology Indonesia. 4 (3), 127-131.

Wahyuno, D., Hartati, S.Y., Djiwanti, S.R., Noveriza, R. & Sukamto (2011) Penyakit penting pada tanaman nilam dan usaha pengendaliannya.In: Bunga Rampai Inovasi Tanaman Atsiri Indonesia. Badan Litbang Pertanian, Puslitbangbun, Balittro, hlm. 66-110.

Wahyuno, D. & Sukamto (2010) Ketahanan Pogostemon cablin dan Pogostemon heyneanus terhadap Synchytrium pogostemonis. Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri. 16 (3), 91-97.

Wahyuno, D., Sukamto, Manohara, D., Kusnanta, A., Sumardiyono, C. & Hartono, S. (2007) Synchytrium a potential threat of patchouli in Indonesia. In: Proceeding International Seminar on Essential Oil. Jakarta. DAI-IPB, pp. 92-99.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.%25p

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



View My Stats

Creative Commons License
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/bultro

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (BUL LITTRO) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI)
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor, Indonesia 16111
Telp. (0251) 8321879, Fax. (0251) 8327010
E mail : buletintro@gmail.com
Website : http://balittro.litbang.pertanian.go.id