The Effect Green Manure of Tithonia diversifolia and Dung Manure on Yield of Echinacea purpurea

Dian Susanti, Harto Widodo, Erri S. Hartanto

Abstract


Echinaceae is introduced medicinal plant as immunomodulator. The high demand of echinaceae as raw material for immunomodulatory herbal medicine by the industries, requires the increase in quantity and quality of cultivated echinaceae. Thus, the use of fertilizer is necessary. However, to ensure the safety of raw materials for herbal medicine industry, the use of organic fertilizer becomes one of the important components. Organic fertilizer used can be in the form of solid fertilizer such as dung manure, compost and green manure. Various plants can be utilized as a source of green manure such as Tithonia diversifolia, because of its high N content. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dosage of dung manure and green manure from T. diversifolia on echinaceae biomass and echinacoside contents. The research was arranged in Factorial Randomized Block Design with two treatments, three dosages of dung manure (P) 0; 2.5; 5 ton.ha-1, and three dosages of green manure from T. diversifolia (T) 0; 10 and 20 ton.ha-1. The treatment combinations were repeated three  times. The results  showed  that there was no interaction between T. diversifolia green manure and dung manure usage. The use of  T. diversifolia  fertilizer alone was not evidently increased  the fresh weight of biomass at 20 ton.ha-1. The use of  T. diversifolia and dung manure showed no significant effect on echinacoside content.

Keywords


Echinacea purpurea; Tithonia diversifolia; organic fertilizer

Full Text:

PDF

References


Achieng, J.O., Ouma, G., Odhiambo, G. & Muyekho, F. (2010) Effect of Farmyard Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Maize Production on Alfisols and Ultisols in Kakamega, Western Kenya. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 1 (5), 740-747. doi:10.5251/abjna.2010.1.4.430.439.

Andayani & Sarido, L. (2013) Uji Empat Jenis Pupuk Kandang terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Cabai Keriting (Capsicum annum L.). Jurnal Agrifor. 12 (1), 22-29.

AR, A., Farni, Y. & Ermadani (2011) Aplikasi Pupuk Hijau (Calopogonium mucunoides dan Pueraria javanica) terhadap Air Tanah Tersedia dan Hasil Kedelai. J. Hidrolitan. 2 (1), 31-39.

Arifah, S.M. (2013) Aplikasi Macam dan Dosis Pupuk Kandang pada Tanaman Kentang. Jurnal Gamma. 8 (2), 80-85.

Bachtiar, T., Waluyo, S.H. & Syaukat, S.H. (2013) Pengaruh Pupuk Kandang dan SP-36 terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Padi Sawah. Jurnal Ilmiah Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi. 9 (2), 151-159.

Bonomelli, C., Cisterna, D. & Reciné, C. (2005) Efecto de la Fertilización Nitrogenada Sobre la Composición Mineral de Echinacea purpurea. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria. 32 (2), 85-91. doi:10.4067/rcia.v32i2.310.

BPPSDMP (2013) Cara Pemupukan Padi Organik Yang Baik 2013. http://cybex.deptan.go.id/ Penyuluhan/Cara-Pemupukan.

Buntoro, B.H., Rogomulyo, R. & Trisnowati, S. (2014) Pengaruh Takaran Pupuk Kandang dan Intensitas Cahaya terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Temu Putih (Curcuma zedoaria L.). Vegetalika. 3 (4), 29-39.

Chen, Y.-L., Sung, J.-M. & Lin, S.-D. (2015) Effect of Extraction Methods on the Active Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Ethanolic Extracts of Echinacea purpurea Flower. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 6, 201–212. doi:10.4236/ajps.2015.61023.

Chukwuka, K.S. & Omotayo, O.E. (2009) Soil Fertility Restoration Potentials of Tithonia green Manure and Water Hyacint Compost on a Nutrient Depleted Soil in South Western Nigeria using Zea mays L. as test crop. Research Journal of Soil Biology. 1 (1), 20-30.

El-Din, A.A.E., Hendawy, S.F., Aziz, E.E. & Omer, E.A. (2010) Enhancing Growth, Yield and Essential Oil of Caraway Plants by Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizers. International Journal of Academic Research. 2 (3), 192-197.

Fatimah, S. & Handarto, B.M. (2008) Pengaruh Komposisi Media Tanam terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees.). Embryo. 5 (2), 133-148.

Fitriyanti, W. (2014) Pengaruh Takaran Bokashi Pupuk Kandang Sapi dan Dosis Gandasil D terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Caisim (Brassica juncea L.). Embrio. www.journal.unitas-pdg.ac.id/downlotfilemh. php?file=jurnal Welfi Fitriyanti.

Gilman, E.F. (2014) Echinacea purpurea, Purple Coneflower FPS192 (February), Florida, pp. 1-2. http://www.tarheelgardening.com/ wordpress/ 2011/06/16/echinacea-purpurea-purple-coneflower/.

Ibrahim, M.H., Jaafar, H.Z.E., Kamiri, E. & Ghasemzadeh, A. (2013) Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth). Molecules. 18, 10973-10988. doi:10.3390/molecules180910973.

Irwan, A.W., Nurmala, T. & Nira, T.D. (2017) Pengaruh Jarak Tanam Berbeda dan Berbagai Dosis Pupuk Kandang Ayam terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Hanjeli Pulut (Coix lacrymajobi L .) di Dataran Tinggi Punclut. Jurnal Kultivasi. 16 (1), 233-245.

Jeptoo, A., Aguyoh, J.N. & Saidi, M. (2013) Tithonia Manure Improves Carrot Yield and Quality. Global Journal of Biologym Agriculture and Health Sciences. 2 (4), 136-142.

Jia, C., Shi, H., Jin, W., Zhang, K., Jiang, Y., Zhao, M. & Tu, P. (2009) Metabolism of Echinacoside, a Good Antioxidant, in rats: Isolation and Identification of its Biliary Metabolites. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 37 (2), 431-438. doi:10.1124/dmd.108.023697.

Kumar, K.M. & Ramaiah, S. (2011) Pharmacological Importance of Echinacea purpurea. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2 (4), 304-314.

Kusuma, M.E. (2012) Pengaruh Beberapa Jenis Pupuk Kandang terhadap Kualitas Bokashi. Jurnal Ilmu Hewani Tropika. 1 (2), 41-46. http://www.unkripjournal.com/index.php/JIHT/article/view/13.

Laude, S., Mahfudz, Fathurrahman & Samudin, S. (2014) Persistence of Atrazine and Oxyfluorfen in Soil Added with Tithonia diversifolia and Chromolena odorata Organic Matter. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 2 (5), 874-879.

Lee, J. & Scagel, C.F. (2010) Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products. Journal of Functional Foods. 2 (1), Elsevier Ltd, 77-84. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2009.11.004.

Lestari, S.A.D. (2016) Pemanfaatan Paitan (Tithonia diversifolia) sebagai Pupuk Organik pada Tanaman Kedelai. IPTEK Tanaman Pangan. 11 (1), 49-56.

Magdalena, F., Sudiarso & Sumarni, T. (2013) Penggunaan Pupuk Kandang dan Pupuk Hijau Crotalaria juncea L. untuk Mengurangi Penggunaan Pupuk Anorganik pada Tanaman Jagung (Zea mays L.). Jurnal Produksi Tanaman. 1 (2), 61-71.

Makinde, A.I., Are, K.S., Oluwafemi, M.O., Ayanfeoluwa, O.E. & Jokanola, O.O. (2016) Green Manure Source Affects Growth and Vegetative Yield of Fluted Pumpkin. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 12 (4), 1-6. doi:10.9734/AJEA/2016/25692.

Miller, S.C. & Yu, H. (2004) Echinacea: The genus Echinacea. Miller, S.C. (ed.) 39, Florida, CRC Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.

Mistrikova, I. & Vaverkova, S. (2006) Echinacea - Chemical Composition, Immunostimulatory Activities and Uses. Journal of botany. 16, 11-26. http://www.bz.upjs.sk/thaiszia/ index.html.

Mugwe, J., Mugendi, D., Kungu, J. & Mucheru-Muna, M. (2007) Effect of Plant Biomass, Manure and Inorganic Fertiliser on Maize Yield in the Central Highlands of Kenya. African Crop Science Journal. 15 (3), 111-126.

Nugroho, Y.A., Sugito, Y., Agustina, L. & Soemarno (2013) Kajian Penambahan Dosis beberapa Pupuk Hijau dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Selada (Lactuca sativa L.). J. Exp. Life Sci. 3 (2), 45-53.

Oniszczuk, T., Oniszczuk, A., Gondek, E., Guz, L., Puk, K., Kocira, A., Kusz, A., Kasprzak, K. & Wojtowicz, A. (2016) Active Polyphenolic Compounds, Nutrient Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Extruded Fish Feed Containing Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.11.013.

Purwani, J. (2010) Pemanfaatan Tithonia diversifolia (Hamsley) A Gray untuk Perbaikan Tanah dan Produksi Tanaman. In: Seminar Nasional 2010 Balai Penelitian Tanah: Bogor. 32 (1), Bogor, pp. 253-263.

Rahardjo, M. (2005) Peluang Pembudidayaan Tanaman Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea) di Indonesia. Perspektif. 4 (1), 1-10.

Reis, M.M., Santos, L.D.T., Pegoraro, R.F., Colen, F., Rocha, L.M. & Ferreira, G.A. de P. (2016) Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental Nutrition of Tithonia diversifolia and Attributes of The Soil Fertilized with Biofertilizer in Irrigated System. Agriambi. 20 (11), 1008-1013. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10. 1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v20n11p1008-1013 Nutrition.

Ruiz, G.G., Nelson, E.O., Kozin, A.F., Turner, T.C., Waters, R.F. & Langland, J.O. (2016) A Lack of Bioactive Predictability for Marker Compounds Commonly used for Herbal Medicine Standardization. PLoS ONE. 11 (7), 1-10. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159857.

Ruiz, T.E., Febles, G.J., Galindo, J.L. & Savon, L.L. (2014) Tithonia diversifolia, its Possibilities in Cattle Rearing Systems. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science. 48 (1), 79-82.

Sabran, I., Soge, Y.P. & Wahyudi, H.I. (2015) Pengaruh Pupuk Kandang Ayam Bervariasi Dosis terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kacang Tanah (Arachis hypogeae L.) pada Entisol Sidera. Jurnal Agrotekbis. 3 (3), 297-302.

Setiawan & Rahardjo, M. (2015) Respon Pemupukan terhadap Pertumbuhan, Produksi dan Mutu Herba Meniran (Phyllantus niruri). Bul. Littro. 26 (1), 25-34.

Shokalu, A.O., Ojo, A.O., Ezekiel-Adewoyin, D.T., Akinwuny, A.H. & Azeez, J.O. (2010) Use of Tithonia diversifolia and Compost as Soil Amendments for Growth and Yield of Celosia argentea. Acta Horticulturae, New York Science Journal. 3 (6), 133-138.

Stevanus, C.T., Saputra, J. & Wijaya, T. (2015) Peran Unsur Mikro Bagi Tanaman Karet. Warta Perkaretan. 34 (1), 11-18.

Still, D.W., Kim, D.H. & Aoyama, N. (2005) Genetic Variation in Echinacea angustifolia Along a Climatic Gradient. Annals of Botany. 96 (3), 467-477. doi:10.1093/aob/mci199.

Subositi, D. & Widiyastuti, Y. (2013) Keragaman Genetik Aksesi Ekinase (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) Hasil Seleksi Massa Tahun I melalui Analisis RPAD. Buletin Kebun Raya. 16 (2), 93-100.

Sunghening, W., Tohari & Shiddieq, D. (2012) Pengaruh Mulsa Organik terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tiga Varietas Kacang Hijau (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) di Lahan Pasir Pantai Bugel, Kulon Progo. Vegetalika. 1 (2), 54-66. http://journal.ugm.ac.id/index. php/jbp/article/view/1519.

Wahyudin, A., Ruminta & Bachtiar, D.C. (2015) Pengaruh Jarak Tanaman Berbeda pada Berbagai Dosis Pupuk Organik terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Jagung Hibrida P-12 di Jatinangor. Jurnal Kultivasi. 14 (1), 1-8.

Widiyaningrum, P. & Lisdiana (2015) Efektivitas Proses Pengomposan Sampah Daun dengan Tiga Sumber Aktivator Berbeda. Rekayasa. 13 (2), 107-113.

Winnifred, A. & Morris, O.S. (2014) Tithonia diversifolia (Tithonia). Invasive Species Compendium (Datasheet). 2014 http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/54020 [Accessed: 6 October 2017].

Yang, J. & Zhang, J. (2010) Crop Management Techniques to Enhance Harvest Index in Rice. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1-13. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq112.

Zolgharnein, J. (2010) Determination of Cichoric Acid as a Biomarker in Echinacea purpurea Cultivated in Iran using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Chinese Medicine. 1 (1), 23-27. doi:10.4236/cm.2010.11004.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v28n2.2017.127-136

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments




Copyright (c) 2017 Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



View My Stats

Creative Commons License
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/bultro

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (BUL LITTRO) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI)
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor, Indonesia 16111
Telp. (0251) 8321879, Fax. (0251) 8327010
E mail : buletintro@gmail.com
Website : http://balittro.litbang.pertanian.go.id