RESPON PEMUPUKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKSI DAN MUTU HERBA MENIRAN (Phyllantus niruri)

Setiawan Setiawan, Mono Rahardjo

Abstract


Meniran (Phyllantus niruri L.) merupakan tanaman liar berkhasiat obat, bahan bakunya sebagian besar diperoleh secara menambang. Pemupukan pada tanaman meniran dalam rangka meningkatkan produktivitas dan mutu belum banyak dilakukan. Percobaan bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pupuk terhadap pertumbuhan dan mutu herba meniran. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Cimanggu dari Januari sampai Juni 2013. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok empat ulangan dengan delapan perlakuan pemupukan. Perlakuan pemupukan terdiri dari (1) kontrol (tanpa pupuk), (2) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang, (3) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+25 kg ha-1 Urea+25 kg ha-1 SP-36+25 kg ha-1 KCl, (4) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+50 kg ha-1 Urea+50 kg ha-1 SP-36+50 kg ha-1 KCl, (5) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+75 kg ha-1 +75 kg ha-1 SP-36+75 kg ha-1 KCl, (6) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+100 kg ha-1 Urea+100 kg ha-1 SP-36+100 kg ha-1 KCl, (7) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+125 kg ha-1 Urea+125 kg ha-1 SP-36+125 kg ha-1 KCl, dan (8) 125 kg ha-1 Urea+125 kg ha-1 SP-36+125 kg ha-1 KCl. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi simplisia kering tertinggi (265 kg ha-1) diperoleh pada perlakuan pemupukan 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+100 kg ha-1 Urea+100 kg ha-1 SP-36+100 kg ha-1 KCl. Mutu simplisia yang dihasilkan telah memenuhi standar MMI, walaupun pemupukan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap mutu simplisia. Untuk menghasilkan simplisia kering 265 kg ha-1, diperlukan 5,697 kg ha-1 N, 0.477 kg ha-1 P, dan 11,368 kg ha-1 K. Secara kualitatif, kandungan metabolit sekunder alkaloid, tanin, saponin, flavonoid, fenolik, triterpenoid, dan glikosida simplisia meniran tidak berbeda nyata pada semua perlakuan pemupukan.


Keywords


Phyllantus niruri; pemupukan; produksi; mutu simplisia

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v26n1.2015.25-34

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