Isolation and Selection of Endophytic Fungi from Cacao as Biocontrol Agents of Phytophthora palmivora Butl.

Rita Harni, Widi Amaria, Khaerati Khaerati, Efi Taufiq

Abstract


Phytophthora palmivora Butl. is a causal pathogen of black pod rot of cocoa (BPR) which leads to severe crop losses. Control of P. palmivora using biological agents such as endophytic fungi is most recommended for its environmentally friendly benefits. The aim of this research was to obtain endophytic fungi from cacao plant that works as biological agent against P. palmivora. The research was conducted at Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to July 2015. The exploration for endophytic fungi was carried out in cacao producing regions such as Southeast Sulawesi, West Java, and Lampung. The samples taken were of leaves, pods, and branches of a number of cacao varieties and clones. Isolated endophytic fungi were then being sterilized, selected, and studied in vitro using PDA medium and in vivo using cacao pod. The exploration obtained 269 endophytic fungi, consisted of 195 isolates from Southeast Sulawesi, 41 isolates from West Java, and 33 isolates from Lampung. The evaluation of endophytic fungi isolated from P. palmivora showed that there were 4 species of Trichoderma isolates which have potentials for biological agents to control P. palmivora, namely SWI, STII, PB5, and SWII with inhibitory effect of 70.33%; 68.89%; 67.43%; and 66.67%, respectively.

Keywords


Phytophthora palmivora Butl.; black pod; endophytic fungi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p141-150

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