Helopeltis antonii (Hemiptera: Miridae) Resistance Level in Cacao Plantation Against Three Types of Synthetic Insecticide

Aidha Utami, Dadang Dadang, Ali Nurmansyah, I Wayan Laba


In Indonesia, Helopeltis antonii Signoret is one damaging pest in cacao plant which may cause 60% production loss. Farmers have been using synthetic insecticides to control it.   However, insecticides use with inappropriate dose  can lead to resistance. The research aimed to determine the resistance level of H. antonii against three types of insecticides. The research was conducted at Green House of Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute, Bogor. Collection of field population and interview of insecticides use was conducted at cacao plantation in Bogor, Ciamis, and Sukabumi, West Java from August 2016 to June 2017. The insect used was 3rd instar which divided into two groups, laboratory and field populations. Insecticides used contained active ingredients of chlorpyrifos (organophosphate), lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid), and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid). Cucumber was used as feed substitute for the multiplication of H. antonii test. The experiment was performed using five insecticide concentrations determined by preliminary test result. The relationships between insecticide concentration and insect mortality was analyzed by probit program. The interviews indicated that the insecticides widely used by farmers are pyrethroid type. The result demonstrated that field population of H. antonii from Bogor and Ciamis were resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin with resistance ratio (RR) of 4.2 and 10.8, respectively, whereas population from Sukabumi had RR value of 1.2. All field population of H. antonii showed resistance indication against thiamethoxam with RR ranged from 1.8 to 3.1. Resistance indication to chlorpyrifos was only shown by population from Bogor (RR 1.5).


Insecticide resistance; neonicotinoid; organophosphate; pyrethroid; synthetic insecticides

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)


Atmadja, W. R. (2003). Status Helopeltis antonii sebagai hama pada beberapa tanaman perkebunan dan pengendaliannya. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 22(2), 57–63.

Catindig, J. L. A., Arida, G. S., Baehaki, S. E., Bentur, J. S., Cuong, L. Q., Norowi, M., Rattanakarn, W., Sriratanasak W., Xia J., & Lu, Z. (2009). Situation of planthoppers in Asia. In K. L. Heong, B. Hardy (Eds.), Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia (pp. 191–220). Philippines: IRRI.

Direktorat Jenderal Prasarana dan Sarana Pertanian. (2016). Pestisida pertanian dan kehutanan tahun 2016. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Prasarana dan Sarana Pertanian.

Finney. (1971). Probit analysis (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.

Godase, S. K., Bhole, S. R., Patil, R. P., Shivpuje, P. R., & Sapkal, B. B. (2004). Status of management of insect pests of cashew in Maharashtra. In Report presented in National Group Meeting of Scientists of AICRP on Cashew at NRC for cashew. Puttur, Karnataka, India.

Gurusubramanian, G., Sarmah, M., Rahman, A., Roy, S., & Bora, S. (2008). Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures: A review. Journal of Environmental Biology, 29, 813–826.

Gurusubramanian, G., & Bora, S. (2007). Relative toxicity of some commonly used insecticides against adults of Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Miridae: Hemiptera) collected from Jorhat area tea plantations, South Assam, India. The Resistance Pest Management Newsletter, 17, 8–12.

Gurusubramanian, G., & Bora, S. (2008). Insecticidal resistance to tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Miridae: Heteroptera) in NorthEast India. Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 2, 560–567.

Harsanti, E. S., Martono, E., Sudibyakto, H. A., & Sugiharto, E. (2015). Residu insektisida klorpirifos dalam tanah dan produk bawang merah Allium ascalonium L., di sentra produksi bawang merah di Kabupaten Bantul, Yogyakarta. Ecolab, 9(1), 1–46.

Hasibuan, R., Swibawa I. G., Wibowo, L., Pramono, S., & Hariri, A. M. (2004). Dampak aplikasi insektisida permetrin terhadap hama pengisap buah Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) dan artropoda non-target pada pertanaman kakao (Theobroma cacao L.). Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika, 4(1), 8–12.

Hazarika, L., Bhuyan, M., & Hazarika, B. (2009). Insect pests of tea and their management. Annual Review of Entomology, 54(1), 267–284. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.53.103106.093359

Heong, K. L. (2011). Are planthopper problems caused by a breakdown in ecosystem services? In K. L Heong & B. Hardy (Eds.), Planthoppers: New threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production system in Asia (pp. 221–232). Philippines: IRRI.

Indriati, G., Soesanthy, F., & Hapsari, A. D. (2014). Pengendalian Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) pada tanaman kakao mendukung pertanian terpadu ramah lingkungan. In Rubiyo, R. Harni, B. Martono, E. Wardiana, N. K. Izzah, & A. M. Hasibuan (Eds.), Bunga rampai: Inovasi teknologi bioindustri kakao (pp. 179–188). Sukabumi: IAARD Press.

Jalgaonkar, V. N., Gawankar, M. S., Bendale, V. W., & Patil, P. D. (2009). Efficacy of some insecticides against cashew tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii Sign. The Journal of Plant Protection Sciences, 1(1), 96–97.

Kilin, D., & Atmadja, W. R. (2000). Perbanyakan serangga Helopeltis antonii Signoret pada buah ketimun dan pucuk jambu mete. Jurnal Littri, 5(4), 119–122.

LeOra Software. (1987). POLO-PC User’s Guide. Petaluma: LeOra Software.

Liu, S. H., Yang, B. J., Liu, S., Ding, Z. P., Liu, Z. W., & Tang, J. (2012). Effects of sublethal dose of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on relative biological fitness of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Rice Science, 26, 361–364.

Oka, I. A., & Sukardi, M. (1982). Dampak lingkungan penggunaan pestisida. Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, 1(2).

Omar, D., Khoo, K. C., Muhamad, R., & Ho, C. T. (1986). Preliminary study of resistance in 4 populations of Helopelts theobromae Miller (Hemiptera: Miridae) to Gamma-HCH, propoxur, and dioxacarb. In E Pushparajah and C. P Soon (Eds.), Cocoa and Coconuts: Progress and Outlook (pp. 317–323). Kuala Lumpur: Incorporated Society of Planters.

Onstad, D. W. (2007). Insect resistance management: Biology economics and prediction. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Puinean, A. M. P., Denholm, I., Millar, N. S., Nauen, R., & Williamson, M. S. (2010). Characterisation of imidacloprid resistance mechanism in the brown planthopper, Nilavarpata lugens Stal (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 97, 120–132.

Roy, S., Mukhopadhyay, A., & Gurusubramanian, G. (2011). Resistance to insecticides in field-collected populations of tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse) from the Dooars (North Bengal, India) tea cultivations. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 13(2), 37–44.

Scott, J. G. (1999). Cytochromes P450 and insecticide resistance. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 29, 757–777.

Shelton, A. M., & Zhao, J. (2009). Resistance management to transgenic insecticidal plants. In E. B. Radcliffe, W. D. Hutchison, & R. E. Cancelado (Eds.), Integrated pest management: Concepts, tactics, strategies and case studies (pp. 247–259). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sulistyowati, E. (2008). Pengendalian hama. In Wahyudi, T., T. R. Pangabean, & Pujiyanto (Eds.), Panduan lengkap kakao: Manajemen agribisnis dari hulu hingga hilir (pp. 138–153). Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya.

Sulistyowati, E. (2015). Hama utama tanaman kakao dan pengendaliannya. In Kakao; sejarah, botani, proses produksi, pengolahan, dan perdagangan (pp. 307–334). Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada Univ. Press.

Udiarto, B. K., & Setiawati, W. (2007). Suseptibilitas dan kuantifikasi resistensi 4 strain Plutella xylostella L. terhadap beberapa insektisida. Jurnal Hortikultura, 17(3), 277–284.

Winteringham, F. P. W. (1969). FAO international collaborative programme for the development of standarized test for resistance of agricultural pests to a pesticides. FAO Plant Prot Bull, 17(4), 73–75.

Wiryadiputra, S. (1998). Percobaan pendahuluan pengaruh minyak dan ekstrak biji srikaya terhadap mortalitas Helopeltis sp. (Heteroptera:Miridae). Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia, 4(2), 97–105.

Zote, V. K., Munj, A. Y., Salvi, S. P., & Haldavnekar, P. C. (2017). Efficacy of newer insecticides against tea mosquito bug in cashew Helopeltis antonii sign in Konkan Region of Maharashtra. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 5(4), 713–715.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p89-98


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia


Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (JTIDP) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute
Jl. Raya Pakuwon Km. 2, Parungkuda, Sukabumi 43357 Jawa Barat Indonesia
Telp : (0266) 6542181
Fax : (0266) 6542087
Email : jtidp@litbang.pertanian.go.iduppublikasi@gmail.com
Website : http://balittri.litbang.pertanian.go.id

View My Stats