Evaluation of The Tolerance Levels of 35 Cacao Genotypes to Dry Periods

Juniaty Towaha, Edi Wardiana

Abstract


A prolong dry periods could have a negative impact on growth and yield of cocoa. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the tolerance levels of 35 cocoa genotypes to dry periods. The study was conducted at the Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, West Java; 450 m above sea level; Latosol soil type; and B type of climate; started from August 2014 until October 2015. Thirty five cacao genotypes consisted of two released variety  (i.e Sulawesi 1 and SCA 6) and 33 other genotypes were used in this research.  The cacao plants were three-years old, cultivated at a 3 x 3 m spacing distance under the 26 years old Salak Dwarf coconut trees.  Ten plant samples were determined randomly and the fruits were harvested in February 2015 (wet period) and October 2015 (dry period). A bulk of 10–30 pods per genotype were randomly selected for each harvest periods. The variable observed were fresh weigth per pod,  number of beans per pod, fresh and dry weight of beans per pod, and fresh weight of pod husks + pulps per pod. The tolerance level to dry periods was determined base on the dry weight of bean/pod.  The result showed that a continueous six months dry periods prior to harvesting significantly reduced yield components from 4.92%-42.54%.  Based on the dry weight of beans per pod, three genotypes, namely KW 162, KW 165, and KW 215, were classified as tolerant, while the other were moderately tolerant and susceptible to drought. The result implies the important of further research to obtain superior cocoa clones resistance to drought.


Keywords


Cacao; dry period; tolerance

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

References


Adjaloo, M.K., Oduro, W., & Banful, B. K. (2010). Floral phenology of Upper Amazon cocoa trees: Implications for reproduction and productivity of cocoa. Research Article. International Scholarly Research Network, ISRN Agronomy, Volume 2012, Article ID 461674, 8 p. doi:10.5402/2012/461674.

Almeida, C.M.V.C., Vencovsky, R., Cruz, C.D., & Bartley, B.G.D. (1994). Path analysis of yield components of cacao hybrids (Theobroma cacao L.). Rev. Bras. Genet., 17(2), 181–186.

Almeida, A-A.F., & Valle, B.R. (2007). Ecophysiology of the cacao tree. Braz. Plant. Physiol., 19(4), 425–448.

Almeida, R.L.D.S., Chaves, L.H.G., & Da Silva, E.F. (2014). Growth of cocoa as function of fertigation with nitrogen. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ijee.2012.03.04.14. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment, 3(4), 385–389.

Araque, O., Jaimez, R.E., Tezara, W., Coronel, I., Urich, R., & Espinoza, W. (2012). Comparative photosynthesis, water relations, growth and survival rates in juvenile Criollo cacao cultivars (Theobroma cacao) during dry and wet seasons. Expl. Agric., 48(4), 513–522.

Atayese, M.O., Olaiya, A.O., Adedeji, A.R., & Hammed, L.A. (2012). Evaluation of the three cocoa varieties for drought tolerance in Nigeria. Niger. J. Hort. Sci., 17, 177–187.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2010). Standard nasional biji kakao: amandemen I. SNI 2323:2008/Amd1:2010 (p. 3). Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional.

Bae, H., Kim, S-H., Kim, M.S., Sicher, R.C., Lary, D., Strem, M.D., Natarajan, S., & Bailey, B.A. (2008). The drought response of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and the regulation of genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis by drought and other stress. Plant Phyiol. & Biochem., 46, 171–188.

Baon, J.B. (2011). 100 Tahun Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia 1911–2011 (p. 373). Jember: Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia.

Bray, E.A. (1997). Plant responses to water deficit. Plant Physiol., 103, 1035–1040.

Carr, M.K.V., & Lockwood, G. (2011). The water relation and irrigation requirements of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): A review. Exp. Agric., 47, 653–676.

Colombo, M.L., Pinorini-Goldy, M.T., & Conti, A. (2012). Botany and pharmacognosy of the cacao tree. In Paoletti et al., (Eds.). Chocolate and Health. Italia: Springer-Verlag.

Daymond, A.J., & Hadley, P. (2008). The effect of temperature and light integral on early vegetative growth and chlorophyll fluorescence of four contrasting genotypes of cacao (Theobroma cacao). Ann. Appl. Biol., 145, 257–262.

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan. (2011). Pedoman teknis praktek budidaya kakao yang baik. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan, Kementerian Pertanian RI.

Guo, X.Y., Zhang, X.S., & Huang, Z.Y. (2010). Drought tolerance in three hybrid popular clones submitted to different watering regimes. J. Plant Ecol., 3, 79–87.

Lawal, J.O., & Omonona, B.T. (2014). The effects of rainfall and other weather parameters on cocoa production in Nigeria. Comm. Sci., 5(4), 518–523.

Mitller, R. (2006). Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination. Trends in Plant Science, 11, 15–19.

Moser, G., Leuschner, C., Hertel, D., Hölscher, D., Köhler, M., Leitner, D., … Schwendenmann, I. (2010). Response of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao) to a 13-month desiccation period in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Agrofor. Syst., 79, 171–187.

Niemenak, N., Cilas, C., Rohsius, C., Bleiholder, H., Meier, U., & Lieberei, R. (2009). Phenological growth stages of cacao plants (Theobroma sp.): Codification and description according to the BBHC scale. Ann. Appl. Biol., 156, 13–24.

Ojo, A.D., & Sadiq, I. (2010). Effect of climate change on cocoa yield : A case of cocoa research institute (CRIN) farm, Oluyole Local Government Ibadan Oyo State. J. of Sustain. Develop. in Afr,. 12(1), 350–358.

Omolaja, S.S., Aikpokpodion, P., Adedeji, S., & Vwioko, D.E. (2009). Rainfall and temperature effects on flowering and pollen productions in cocoa. Afr. Crop. Sci. J., 17(1), 41–48.

Oyekale, A.S., Bolaji, M.B., & Olawa. O.W. (2009). The effects of climate change on cocoa production and vulnerability assesment in Nigeria. Agric. J., 4(2), 77–85.

Regazzoni, O., Sugito, Y., Suryanto, A., & Prawoto, A.A. (2015). Efisiensi penggunaan energi matahari klon-klon tanaman kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) yang diusahakan di bawah tiga spesies tanaman penaung. Pelita Perkebunan, 31(1), 21–29.

Santos, I.C.D, Almeida, A-A.F., Anhert, D., Conceição, A. S., Pirovani, C.P., Pires, J.L., ...Baligar, V.C. (2014). Molecular, physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes to soil water deficit. Plos One, 9(12), 31 p. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115746.

Schwendenmann, L., Veldkamp, E., Moser, G., Hölscher, D., Köhler, M., Clough,Y., ...van Straaten, O. (2010). Effects of an experimental drought on the functioning of a cacao agroforestry system, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Global Change Biology, 16, 1515–1530.

Zuiderma, P.A., Gerritsma, W., Mommer, L., & Anten, N.P.R. (2005). A physiological production model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao): Model presentation, validation and application. Agric. Syst., 84, 195–225.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v2n3.2015.p133-142

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (JTIDP) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute
Jl. Raya Pakuwon Km. 2, Parungkuda, Sukabumi 43357 Jawa Barat Indonesia
Telp : (0266) 6542181
Fax : (0266) 6542087
Email : jtidp@litbang.pertanian.go.iduppublikasi@gmail.com
Website : http://balittri.litbang.pertanian.go.id



View My Stats