Peranan Ekstrak Babadotan dan Bawang Putih serta Minyak Kemiri Sunan terhadap Serangan Penggerek Buah Kakao

Funny Soesanthy, Samsudin Samsudin

Abstract


Penggerek buah kakao (PBK), Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), merupakan hama penting pada tanaman kakao yang menyebabkan penurunan hasil secara kualitas dan kuantitas. Salah satu usaha pengendalian PBK adalah menggunakan pestisida nabati karena bersifat ramah lingkungan dan tidak membahayakan kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis pengaruh daun babadotan dan umbi bawang putih yang dilarutkan dengan air, etanol, metanol, dan heksan, serta minyak kemiri sunan [Reutalis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw] dalam melindungi buah kakao dari serangan PBK. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Januari-Desember 2012, bahan uji yang digunakan adalah babadotan-air (BA), babadotan-etanol (BE), babadotan-metanol (BM), babadotan-heksan (BH), bawang putih-air (PA), bawang putih-etanol (PE), bawang putih-metanol (PM), bawang putih-heksan (PH), minyak kemiri sunan (KS), pestisida kimia berbahan aktif λ-sihalotrin (kontrol negatif), dan air (kontrol positif). Pembuatan ekstrak bahan uji dilakukan di Laboratorium Proteksi Tanaman, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Sukabumi, dan pengujian ekstrak dilakukan di perkebunan kakao PT Bumi Loka Swakarya, Sukabumi. Buah kakao berukuran sekitar 9 cm disemprot secara merata dengan masing-masing bahan uji telah dilarutkan dengan air hingga konsentrasi 1%. Penyemprotan dilakukan setiap bulan sebanyak 2 kali penyemprotan. Percobaan disusun dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) 6 ulangan, setiap petak percobaan digunakan 10 buah kakao. Persentase buah yang terserang PBK dan tingkat kehilangan hasil diamati saat buah dipanen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyemprotan ekstrak PE konsentrasi 1% sebanyak dua kali dengan interval sebulan sekali dapat menurunkan kehilangan hasil sebesar 58,40% dengan nilai efikasi 63,01%. Dengan demikian ekstrak ini dapat dipakai sebagai salah satu bahan formula nabati untuk mengendalikan PBK.

Kata Kunci: Pestisida nabati, penggerek buah kakao, bawang putih, babadotan, kemiri sunan

Cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is an important pest of cocoa which can cause reduction in yield quality and quantity. One attempt of CPB control is application of botanical pesticides because it more friendly to environment and harmless to human health. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of goat-weed leaves and garlic bulbs dissolved in water, ethanol, methanol, and hexane, respectively, as well as philippine tung [Reutalis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw] oil in protecting of cocoa pod from CPB infestation. The research was conducted in January-December 2012 using test materials of goat weed-water (BA), goat weed-ethanol (BE), goat weed-methanol (BM), goat weed-hexane (BH), garlic-water (PA), garlic-ethanol (PE), garlic-methanol (PM), garlic-hexane (PH), philippine tung oil (KS), chemical pesticide containing active ingredient of λ-sihalothrine (negative control), and water (positive control). Extracts of the test materials were made in the Laboratory Plant Protection, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute. Meanwhile, field trial was conducted in the cocoa plantations of PT Bumi Loka Swakarya, Sukabumi. Cocoa pods measuring 9 cm was sprayed evenly with each of the test materials diluted in water to obtain a concentration of 1%. Spraying is done every month as much as 2 times spraying. The experiment was arranged in randomized block design (RBD) with 6 replications, and each plots consist of 10 cocoa pods observed. The percentage of CPB-infested pods and yield loss rate observed when the pods were harvested. The results showed that spraying in concentration 1% of PE extract twice with an interval of once a month can reduce yield loss up to 58,40% with a value efficacy of 63.01%. Thus, this extract can be used as an ingredient of botanical pesticide formula to control CPB.

 


Keywords


Biopesticide; cocoa pod borer; garlic; goat weed; philippine tung

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2013.p157-164

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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