Seleksi Genotipe Unggul Kopi Robusta Spesifik Lokasi

Dani Dani, Cici Tresniawati, Enny Randriani

Abstract


Seleksi genotipe unggul kopi Robusta yang memiliki karakteristik biji besar, kandungan kafein rendah, dan citarasa baik sangat penting dilakukan dalam rangka meningkatkan nilai ekonomi kopi Robusta di pasar global. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melakukan seleksi genotipe kopi Robusta terbaik berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria tersebut di atas. Waktu pelaksanaan penelitian pada bulan Januari-Desember 2012. Bahan seleksi berupa populasi lima genotipe kopi Robusta hasil seleksi petani (MCJ-1, SCJ-1, PKCJ-1, PHCJ-1, dan SuCJ-1) yang telah banyak dibudidayakan di wilayah Kabupaten Curup, Provinsi Bengkulu. Kriteria seleksi berdasarkan karakteristik mutu fisik dan morfometrik biji beras, kandungan kafein, dan mutu citarasa seduhan. Pengujian mutu fisik biji beras, kandungan kafein, dan mutu citarasa seduhan dilaksanakan di Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia, Jember. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian diketahui bahwa genotipe PKCJ-1 memiliki karakteristik ukuran biji paling besar dan kandungan kafein paling rendah. Genotipe PHCJ-1 dan SCJ-1 paling baik dalam hal citarasa dan telah memenuhi kategori salah satu kriteria kopi spesialti. Dengan demikian, berdasarkan kriteria seleksi yang telah ditetapkan, ketiganya terpilih sebagai genotipe harapan.


Kata Kunci: Kopi Robusta, seleksi genotipe, kafein rendah, mutu citarasa

Selection of Robusta coffee genotypes which have superior characteristics, such as large beans size, low caffeine content, and good cup quality taste, is essential in order to increase its economic value in the world market. The objectives of the research was to select the superior genotype(s) of Robusta coffee based on characteristics as mentioned above. The research was carried out at Januari to December 2012. Material used was five genotypes of farmer-selected Robusta coffee (MCJ-1, SCJ-1, PKCJ-1, PHCJ-1, and SuCJ-1) recently grown in many areas across Curup Regency, Bengkulu Province. Selection criteria was physical quality and morphometric characteristics of green beans, caffeine content, and cup quality. The laboratory test was conducted at the Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), Jember. The results showed that the genotype of PKCJ-1 has the largest in size of bean and the lowest in caffeine content. On the other hand, PHCJ-1 and SCJ-1 genotypes are the best in terms of taste and meets of ones criteria for specialty coffee grade. Thus, these three genotypes were selected as a candidate of superior genotypes.


Keywords


Robusta coffee; clonal selection; low caffeine; cup quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2013.p139-144

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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