Induksi Kalus Embriogenik dan Daya Regenerasi Kopi Arabika Menggunakan 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine

Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim, Rr Sri Hartati, Rubiyo Rubiyo, Agus Purwito, Sudarsono Sudarsono

Abstract


Embriogenesis somatik kopi Arabika (Coffea arabica L.) masih mengalami kendala dalam meregenerasikan planlet dari eksplan yang dikulturkan. Kemampuan eksplan daun membentuk embrio dalam proses embriogenesis somatik kopi sangat dipengaruhi oleh komposisi media dan zat pengatur tumbuh. Penelitian bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pemberian 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine dalam proses pembentukan kalus embriogenik dan daya regenerasi kopi Arabika. Penelitian dilakukan di Unit Pengembangan Benih Unggul Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian pada bulan Juli 2011 sampai Desember 2012. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah daun kopi Arabika varietas S795 koleksi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. Rancangan perlakuan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 6 ulangan, masing-masing ulangan terdiri dari 5 eksplan. Induksi kalus menggunakan 5 kombinasi perlakuan 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; dan kontrol (tanpa penambahan 2,4-D dan BA). Peubah yang diamati meliputi jumlah kalus, persentasi kalus embriogenik, berat basah kalus, dan jumlah proembrio. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; dan 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l dapat membentuk kalus kecuali perlakuan kontrol. Berat kalus, persentasi kalus embriogenik, dan jumlah proembrio tertinggi diperoleh pada media kombinasi 2,4-D 2 mg/l dan BA 1 mg/l. Kalus yang mampu beregenerasi berasal dari media kombinasi 2,4-D 1 mg/l dan BA 2 mg/l dengan persentasi 16,67% dengan 6 kecambah per 0,2 gram kalus.

Kata Kunci: Coffea arabica, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, 6-Benzyladenine, embriogenesis somatik

Regeneration of planlets from cultured explants has been an obstacle in somatic embryogenesis of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.). The ability of leaf explants to generate embryos in somatic embryogenesis process of coffee was affected by composition of media and plant growth regulators. The objectives of the research was to examine the effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine in the process of embryogenic callus and regeneration potential of arabica coffee. The study was conducted at Agricultural Superior Seed Development Unit, Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD) from July 2011 to December 2012. Plant material used was leaves of S795 variety which is collected by Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute. The research was arranged in completely randomized design with 6 replications, each replication consist of 5 explants. Callus induction used 5 treatments, i.e. 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; and control (without 2,4-D and BA). Variables observed were number of callus, percentage of embryogenic callus, callus fresh weight and number of proembryo. Result showed that all treatments can produce the callus except control. Combination of 2,4-D 2 mg/l and BA 1 mg/l gave the highest of fresh weight of callus, percentage of embryogenic callus, and number of proembryo. Regenerating callus of 16.67% with the number of sprouts of 6 per 0.2 gram only derived from combination of 2,4-D 1 mg/l BA and 2 mg/l.

 


Keywords


Coffea arabica; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid; 6-Benzyladenine; somatic embryogenesis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2013.p91-98

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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