Seleksi dan Identifikasi Jamur Antagonis Sebagai Agens Hayati Jamur Akar Putih Rigidoporus microporus pada Tanaman Karet

Widi Amaria, Efi Taufiq, Rita Harni

Abstract


Jamur akar putih (Rigidoporus microporus) merupakan patogen utama pada tanaman karet yang sulit pengendaliannya karena
mempunyai struktur bertahan dalam tanah (klamidospora). Pengendalian hayati dengan jamur antagonis sangat potensial digunakan
untuk mengendalikan patogen tular tanah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan
Penyegar, mulai Februari sampai Juli 2012 dengan tujuan untuk menyeleksi dan mengidentifikasi jamur antagonis yang potensial
mengendalikan patogen R. microporus pada tanaman karet. Penelitian terdiri dari dua tahap, yaitu (1) pengambilan sampel pada
beberapa perkebunan karet di daerah Lampung, Sumatera Selatan, Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Barat dan (2) isolasi, seleksi, karakterisasi
morfologi dan identifikasi di Laboratorium Proteksi Tanaman, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. Hasil isolasi jamur
antagonis dari rizosfer dan akar tanaman karet diperoleh 209 isolat. Berdasarkan persentase daya hambat terseleksi 12 isolat antagonis,
yaitu 8 isolat rizosfer (Trichoderma virens, 2 isolat Trichoderma hamatum, 2 isolat Trichoderma amazonicum, Penicillium pinophilum,
Paecilomyces lilacinus, dan Aspergillus fijiensis), dan 4 isolat endofit (Eupenicillium javanicum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium citrinum,
dan Hypocrea atroviridis). Kedua belas isolat tersebut merupakan jamur antagonis potensial untuk mengendalikan penyakit JAP pada
karet.


Kata Kunci: Rigidoporus microporus, seleksi, identifikasi, jamur antagonis

White root disease caused by Rigidoporus microporus is the main pathogen in rubber growing. The diseases is hard to be controlled because of its
chlamydospore in soil. The use of antagonistic fungi is a potential approach being able to control the soil borne disease. A study was established at
laboratory of The Indonesian Research Institute for Industrial and Beverage Crops from February to July 2012. The objective of the study was to select
and identify some antagonistic fungi which are able to control R. microporus in rubber. The steps of study conducted were (1) collecting of soil
samples (as sources of antagonistic fungi) taken from several rubber plantations in Lampung, South Sumatra, Central Java and West Java, and (2)
isolation, selection, and identification of morphological characteristics of the isolates at the Plant Protection Laboratory of The Research Institute.
Results obtained 209 isolates of antagonistic fungi from rhizosphere and endophyte in rubber. There are 12-selected antagonistic isolates consisting of
8 rhizosphere and 4 endophytic isolates. The rhizosphere isolates are Trichoderma virens, 2 isolates of Trichoderma hamatum, 2 isolates of
Trichoderma amazonicum, and one each of Penicillium pinophilum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Aspergillus fijiensis), whereas the
endophytic isolates are Eupenicillium javanicum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium citrinum, and Hypocrea atroviridis of one
each. The twelve isolates are antagonistic fungi in which the white root disease may be likely controlled.


Keywords


Rigidoporus microporus; selection; identification; antagonistic fungi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2013.p55-64

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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