Struktur dan Integrasi Pasar Kopi Arabika Gayo di Kabupaten Aceh Tengah dan Bener Meriah

Mega Amelia Putri, Anna Fariyanti, Nunung Kusnadi

Abstract


Kopi Arabika Gayo merupakan komoditas utama di Kabupaten Aceh Tengah dan Bener Meriah. Sebagian besar (86%) produksi kopi diekspor ke pasar dunia. Selama tahun 2006-2012, pergerakan harga kopi di tingkat eksportir mengalami kenaikan sebesar 17,18%, namun di tingkat petani mengalami penurunan sebesar 1,73%. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis struktur dan integrasi pasar kopi Arabika Gayo. Data yang digunakan merupakan data time series harga bulanan kopi selama tahun 2008-2012. Analisis struktur pasar ditentukan melalui rasio konsentrasi empat perusahaan terbesar (CR4) dan hambatan masuk pasar melalui nilai skala efisiensi minimum (Minimum Efficiency Scale/MES). Analisis integrasi pasar menggunakan model yang telah dikembangkan oleh Ravallion (1986). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi rasio empat perusahaan terbesar (CR4) di tingkat eksportir sebesar 71,12% dan terdapat hambatan masuk pasar yang ditunjukkan dengan nilai MES sebesar 28,53%. Karakteristik struktur pasar menunjukkan bahwa pasar terkonsentrasi dengan tingkat persaingan yang kecil. Struktur pasar yang terbentuk mengarah pada struktur pasar oligopsonistik dan terdapat lembaga pemasaran yang dominan dalam proses penentuan harga yaitu eksportir. Selain itu, analisis integrasi pasar menunjukkan bahwa pasar kopi di tingkat petani tidak terintegrasi dengan eksportir baik dalam jangka panjang maupun jangka pendek. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam proses penentuan harga petani cenderung sebagai penerima harga.


Kata Kunci: Kopi Arabika Gayo, struktur pasar, integrasi pasar, harga, oligopsonistik

Arabica Gayo Coffee is the main commodity of Central Aceh and Bener Meriah regencies. Almost 86 percents of coffee bean produced from those areas is exported to the world market. Though the coffee price increased 17.18 percent at the exporter level during 2006 to 2012, but at the farm level the price of coffee decreased 1.73 percent. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure and integration market of Arabica Gayo coffee. The data used was monthly time series of prices during 2008 to 2012. The analysis of market structure is determined by the concentration ratio of four large firms (CR4) and barriers to market entry through the Minimum Efficiency Scale (MES) value. The analysis of market integration used models that have been developed by Ravallion (1986). Research results showed that the market concentration ratio (CR4) at the exporter level was 71.12 percents and there were barriers to enter the Arabica Gayo coffee market with MES of 28.53 percents. These structural characteristics indicated that market structure is concentrated with a small level of competition. The market structure is oligopsonistic and there is a single marketing institution which determine the Arabica Gayo coffee price. This single institution is exporter. In addition, analysis of market integration showed that the coffee market at the farm level was not integrated with the exporter level in the long and short term. These analysis showed that the farmers are price taker.


Keywords


Arabica Gayo coffee; market structure; market integrations; prices; oligopsonistic

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2013.p47-54

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
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