Pengaruh Perlakuan Benih dan Media Tanam untuk Meningkatkan Vigor Bibit Kakao Hibrida

Baharudin Baharudin, Rubiyo Rubiyo

Abstract


Bibit dengan vigor tinggi proses metabolik yang diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan menjadi aktif sehingga menghasilkan tanaman kakao dengan mutu fisiologis, fisik dan patologis yang baik. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh antara perlakuan benih dengan menggunakan matriconditioning plus agens hayati dan media tanam untuk meningkatkan kesehatan dan vigor bibit kakao hibrida. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Induk Benih Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia Jember, Laboratorium Benih IPB, Laboratorium dan Rumah Kaca Mikrobiologi Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia Bogor, pada bulan Juli 2009 sampai April 2010. Penelitian terdiri atas dua faktor dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok. Faktor pertama adalah perlakuan benih dan faktor kedua adalah media tanam. Penelitian menggunakan benih kakao dari hasil persilangan buatan antara UIT 1 x Sca 6. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa benih kakao hibrida yang diperlakukan dengan matriconditioning + agens hayati dan ditanam dalam media tanah, pasir, dan kompos (2:1:1) + agens hayati, memiliki pertumbuhan tinggi bibit, bobot kering akar, bobot kering bibit, serta kandungan N dan P pada daun yang lebih tinggi. Benih yang diperlakukan dengan matriconditioning + agens hayati menghasilkan pertumbuhan jumlah daun, diameter batang, luas daun, dan panjang akar yang lebih tinggi. Perlakuan media tanah, pasir, dan kompos (2:1:1) + T. harzianum DT/38 dan T. pseudokoningii DT/39 menghasilkan pertumbuhan diameter batang, luas daun, jumlah akar, panjang akar dan kandungan K daun yang lebih tinggi.

Kata Kunci: Theobroma cacao, agens hayati, benih hibrida, matriconditioning, media tanam

Good planting materials both genetically and physiologically are needed to obtain optimal growth and production of cocoa trees. It is however often found suboptimal growth of the crops in the fields be likely due to the cocoa seedlings used are not provided well. A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of seed treatments and growth medium to improve the health and the vigor of cocoa seedlings. The study was conducted at Parent Seed Garden of Indonesian Research Center for Coffee and Cocoa in Jember, IPB Seed Laboratory and Microbiology Laboratory and green house of Indonesian Biotechnology Research Institute for Estate Crops, Bogor, from July 2009 to April 2010. The factors examined consists two factors arranged in a randomized block design with 4 replicates. The first factor is seed treatments, 2 levels: (1) untreated (control) and (2) seedlings treated with matriconditioning + bio control agents (T. harzianum and T. pseudokoningii, density of 106 spores/ml). The second factros is growth medium (composition of soil and others) consisting of 6 levels: (1) soil; (2) soil:san (2:1); (3) soil:compost (2:1); (4) soil:sand:compost (2:1:1); (5) soil:compost (2:1) + T. harzianum and T. Pseudokoningii, density of 106 spores/ml; (6) soil:sand:compost (2:1:1) + T. harzianum and T. Pseudokoningii, density of 106 spores/ml each. Results showed that seeds treated with matriconditioning + bio control agents planted on growth medium of soil, sand, and compost (2:1:1) + bio control agents yielded better performance in height of seedlings, dry weight of root, dry weight of seedlings, also N and P content in leaf. Seeds treated with matriconditioning + bio control agents yielded better performance in number of leaves, stem diameter, leaf area, and root length. Growth medium of soil, sand, compost (2:1:1) + T. harzianum and T. Pseudokoningii DT/39 treatment yielded better performance in stem diameter, leaf area, number of root, and K content in leaf.


Keywords


Theobroma cacao; biological control; hybrid seed; matriconditioning; plant medium

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2013.p27-38

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
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