Pendugaan Daya Gabung dan Heritabilitas Beberapa Karakter Agronomis pada Populasi Generasi F1 Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)

Cici Tresniawati, Dani Dani, Ilham Nur Ardi Wicaksono, Rubiyo Rubiyo

Abstract


Informasi mengenai parameter genetik diperlukan sebagai dasar penentuan tetua dalam perakitan varietas hibrida. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui daya gabung umum (DGU) dan daya gabung khusus (DGK) tetua dari 10 populasi F1 kakao hasil persilangan dialel 5 x 5 tanpa selfing dan tanpa resiprok. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan (KP.) Sumber Asin, Malang, Jawa Timur dari bulan April sampai Oktober 2013. Tetua yang digunakan adalah DR1 (kakao edel) dan ICCRI 03, TSH 858, ICS 13, dan Sca 6 (kakao lindak). Karakter yang diamati adalah lingkar batang, tinggi jorket, persentase tanaman berbunga, dan persentase tanaman berbuah. Data karakter tersebut dianalisis ragamnya menggunakan metode Griffing 4. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan klon TSH 858 memiliki efek DGU paling tinggi untuk karakter lingkar batang dan persentase tanaman berbunga, sedangkan klon Sca 6 untuk tinggi jorket. Kedua klon tersebut berpotensi untuk dijadikan tetua persilangan dalam pembentukan varietas sintetis. Nilai DGK paling tinggi ditunjukkan oleh kombinasi tetua DR 1 x Sca 6 untuk karakter lingkar batang, persentase tanaman berbunga, dan persentase tanaman berbuah, sedangkan kombinasi TSH 858 x DR 1 memperlihatkan nilai paling tinggi untuk karakter tinggi jorket. Kedua kombinasi tetua tersebut potensial dijadikan alternatif dalam perakitan varietas hibrida.

Kata kunci: Kakao mulia, kakao lindak, Daya Gabung Khusus, Daya Gabung Umum, Griffing 4, heritabilitas

Knowledge about genetic parameters is important for plant breeders as a basis for determining potential parent in hybrid breeding programs. The objectives of this study was to evaluate general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) in F1 population of cocoa derived from diallel crossing of 5 x 5 without selfing and reciprocal. The experiment was conducted at the Sumber Asin experimental station, Malang, East Java, from April to October 2013. The parental clones used are ICCRI 03, TSH 858, Sca 6, ICS 13 (bulk cacao) dan DR 1 (fine cacao). Observations on agronomic characters including trunk girth, jorquette height, percent of flowering, and percent of fruiting were carried out on individual plants. Variance analysis was perfomed by Griffing Method type 4. The result showed that TSH 858 clone has the highest GCA effect on trunk girth and percent of flowering (TSH 858), while Sca 6 clone was significant only for jorquette height. Both of those clones would be potential as parent in assembling new variety, particularly to gain the large trunk girth and high jorquette. On the other hand, the highest SCA value indicated by the combination of DR 1 x Sca 6 for trunk girth, percent of flowering and percent of fruiting, whereas the combination of TSH 858 x DR 1 showed the highest value for jorquette height. Both of these parent combinations are prospective as an alternative in the assembly of new hybrid varieties.


Keywords


Edel cocoa; bulk cocoa; GCA; SCA; Griffing 4; heritability

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v1n2.2014.p119-124

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.699/AU2/P2MI-LIPI/10/2015 on Oktober 30, 2015 by Indonesian Institute of Science

                  


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