Pengaruh Waktu Aplikasi dan Jenis Trichoderma terhadap Penyakit Jamur Akar Putih pada Bibit Tanaman Karet

Widi Amaria, Edi Wardiana

Abstract


Pemanfaatan agens hayati berupa jamur antagonis Trichoderma mempunyai peluang dalam mencegah maupun menekan serangan jamur akar putih (JAP) pada bibit tanaman karet. Oleh karena itu, Trichoderma dapat diaplikasikan sebelum maupun setelah infeksi patogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui waktu aplikasi dan jenis Trichoderma yang efektif dalam mengendalikan penyakit JAP pada bibit karet. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kasa Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (Balittri) Sukabumi, mulai bulan Mei sampai November 2013. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan acak kelompok faktorial dua faktor dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah dua waktu aplikasi Trichoderma (sebelum dan setelah infeksi patogen), faktor kedua adalah empat jenis Trichoderma (Trichoderma virens, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma amazonicum, dan Trichoderma atroviride). Di samping itu, digunakan petak kontrol (tanpa Trichoderma) untuk melihat efektif-tidaknya penggunaan Trichoderma. Bibit karet menggunakan klon AVROS 2037 hasil okulasi umur 3 bulan. Peubah yang diamati meliputi gejala penyakit JAP, masa inkubasi patogen, dan intensitas serangan JAP. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada pembibitan karet penggunaan agen hayati Trichoderma lebih efektif bila diaplikasikan sebelum ada infeksi patogen karena dapat memperpanjang masa inkubasi patogen dan menekan serangan JAP masing-masing 60,49 hari dan 78,36% dibandingkan kontrol, serta 51,62 hari dan 71,14% bila dibandingkan aplikasi setelah ada infeksi. Trichoderma yang diaplikasikan setelah infeksi patogen hanya efektif menekan serangan JAP sebesar 25% dibandingkan kontrol. T. virens dan T. amazonicum paling efektif bila diaplikasikan sebelum infeksi patogen, sedangkan apabila tanaman telah terinfeksi patogen maka dianjurkan menggunakan T. virens, T. amazonicum, atau T. atroviride.

Kata kunci: Karet, jamur akar putih, Trichoderma, intensitas serangan, masa inkubasi patogen

The utilization of biological agents such as fungal antagonist of Trichoderma has the opportunity to prevent and suppress the attacks of white root diseases (JAP) in rubber seedlings. Therefore, Trichoderma can be applied before or after pathogen infection. The objectives of this study were to determine the application time and Trichoderma types which effective in controlling white root fungi in rubber seedlings. The research was carried out in the Screen house of Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from May to November 2013. The randomized complete block design in factorial two factors and three replications was used in this study. The first factor: two times of Trichoderma application (one week before and after pathogen infections), whereas the second factor: four types of Trichoderma (Trichoderma virens, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma amazonicum, and Trichoderma atroviride). In addition, the control plot (without Trichoderma application) was also used to investigate the effectiveness of Trichoderma application. Rubber seedling used in this study was 3 months old AVROS 2037 clone that obtained from grafting. The variable observed were symptom of JAP diseases, pathogen incubations period, and attacks intensity of JAP. The results showed that the use of Trichoderma biological agents in rubber seedling more effective when applied before pathogen infection, because it can prolong the incubations period and suppress pathogenic attack of JAP at about 60.49 days and 78.36%, respectively compared to the controls, and 51.62 days and 71.14% compared to the application after pathogen infections. The application of Trichoderma after pathogen infections only effective to suppress JAP attacks at about 25% compared to the control. T. virens and T. amazonicum most effective when applied before pathogen infection, whereas if the plant has been infected with a pathogen, it is recommended to use T. virens, T. amazonicum, or T. atroviride.


Keywords


Rubber; white root disease; Trichoderma; attack intensity; pathogen incubation period

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v1n2.2014.p79-86

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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