Pengaruh Beberapa Jenis Formula Insektisida Nabati untuk Melindungi Buah Kakao dari Serangan Penggerek

Funny Soesanthy, Samsudin Samsudin

Abstract


Penggunaan insektisida sintetik yang terus menerus untuk mengendalikan penggerek buah kakao (PBK) dapat merusak keseimbangan ekosistem di perkebunan kakao. Oleh sebab itu, diperlukan cara pengendalian yang relatif aman bagi manusia dan lingkungan, yaitu menggunakan insektisida nabati. Tujuan penelitian adalah menguji keefektifan formula insektisida nabati berbahan dasar ekstrak daun bandotan-metanol, bawang putih-etanol, dan kemiri sunan untuk melindungi buah kakao dari infestasi PBK. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Januari-Desember 2013. Bahan uji yang digunakan adalah bandotan-metanol+serai wangi (BMS), bandotan-metanol+minyak cengkeh (BMC), bandotan-metanol+bawang putih-etanol (BMP), bawang putih-etanol+serai wangi (PES), bawang putih-etanol+minyak cengkeh (PEC), kemiri sunan+bawang putih-etanol (KSP), kemiri sunan+bandotan-metanol (KSB), α-eleostearic acid (kontrol negatif), dan air (kontrol positif). Formula dibuat di Laboratorium Proteksi Tanaman, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (Balittri) Sukabumi, dan pengujiannya dilakukan di perkebunan kakao PT. Bumiloka Swakarya, Sukabumi. Perlakuan disusun dalam unit-unit percobaan yang masing-masing terdiri dari 16 pohon (4 x 4 pohon) dan diulang tiga kali. Pada setiap plot dipilih 30 buah kakao sehat berukuran 6-10 cm. Konsentrasi formula 5% dan 10% dengan volume larutan 250 ml/pohon disemprotkan ke seluruh permukaan buah dan cabang-cabang horizontal, dengan interval 2 minggu sekali sebanyak 6 kali. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap tingkat serangan PBK dan kerusakan buah yang dipanen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa formula KSB (kemiri sunan 25% + bandotan 5%) pada konsentrasi 10 ml/l menghasilkan nilai persentase serangan PBK terendah, sedangkan formula BMP (bandotan 5% + bawang putih 5%) pada konsentrasi 10 ml/l menyebabkan intensitas serangan PBK dan kehilangan hasil terendah.

Kata kunci: Insektisida nabati, penggerek buah kakao, formula

The use of synthetic insecticide continuously to control the cocoa pod borer (CPB) can cause serious damage to the ecosystem balance in the cocoa plantations. Therefore, a control measures that are relatively safe for humans and the environment, such as the use of botanical insecticide are needed. The purpose of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of plant-based insecticide from leaves goat weed-methanol and garlic-ethanol extract, and phillipine tung oil formula to protect cocoa pods from CPB infestation. The study was conducted from January to December 2013. The test materials used were goat weed-methanol+citronella (BMS), goat weed-methanol+clove oil (BMC), goat weed-methanol+garlic-ethanol (BMP), garlic-ethanol+citronella (PES), garlic-ethanol+clove oil (PEC), phillipine tung oil+garlic-ethanol (KSP), phillipine tung oil+goat weed-methanol (KSB), α-eleostearic acid (negative control), and water (positive control). All of the formulas were made in the Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI) Sukabumi, whereas the field testing was conducted in cocoa plantations of PT Bumiloka Swakarya, Sukabumi. Each experimental plot consisted of a 4x4 trees, repeated 3 times. In each plot selected 30 healthy cocoa pods measuring 6-10 cm in length. Distance between plots was 2 arrays of trees. Formulas concentration were 5% and 10%, which then sprayed onto the entire surface of the pods and horizontal branches using a knapsack sprayer, 6 times at intervals of 2 weeks. Solution volume was 250 ml / tree. Observations were made on the level of CPB infestation and pod damage harvested. The results showed that the lowest percentage of CPB infestation was on KSB 10 (philippine tung oil 25% + goat weed 5%), whereas the lowest percentage of intensity and yields loss were on BMP 10 (goat weed 5% + garlic 5%).


Keywords


Botanical insecticide; cocoa pod borer; formula

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v1n2.2014.p69-78

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.699/AU2/P2MI-LIPI/10/2015 on Oktober 30, 2015 by Indonesian Institute of Science

                    


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