Skrining Fitokimia Enam Genotipe Teh

Budi Martono, Rudi T. Setiyono

Abstract


Skrining fitokimia dimaksudkan untuk melakukan evaluasi pendahuluan tentang kandungan kimia pada teh (Camellia sinensis). Selain itu, teh mengandung katekin yang dapat digunakan sebagai petunjuk kualitas dari daun teh. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui kandungan senyawa aktif dan kadar katekin pada teh. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan April sampai dengan Juni 2012 di laboratorium Pengujian Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Bogor. Skrining fitokimia pucuk peko dengan dua daun (p+2) dilakukan berdasarkan prosedur dari Materia Medika Indonesia (MMI), sedangkan analisis katekin dengan menggunakan metode SNI gambir. Penelitian disusun berdasarkan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL), enam perlakuan dengan empat ulangan. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah enam genotipe teh (Tbs 1, Tbs 2, Hibrid, Cin 143, Rb 3, dan Kiara 8). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keenam genotipe yang diuji mengandung senyawa alkaloid, saponin, tanin, fenolik, flavanoid, steroid, dan glikosida. Genotipe Tbs 1, Hibrid, dan Kiara 8 positif mengandung senyawa triterpenoid, sedangkan Tbs 2, Rb 3, dan Cin 143 negatif. Genotipe Tbs 1 dan Tbs 2 memiliki kandungan katekin paling tinggi (kecuali bagian ruas+tangkai daun) dibandingkan dengan empat genotipe lainnya. Pucuk peko, daun pertama, dan daun kedua pada genotipe Tbs 1 memiliki kadar katekin masing-masing 17,92%, 11,73%, dan 14,67%, sedangkan pada genotipe Tbs 2 masing-masing 18,22%, 13,48%, dan 15,81%. Kadar katekin terendah dihasilkan oleh bagian ruas+tangkai daun pada genotipe Rb 3 (1,78%). Pucuk peko menghasilkan kandungan katekin bervariasi antara 8,36%-18,22%, lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan daun pertama, daun kedua, dan bagian ruas + tangkai daun.

Kata kunci: Camellia sinensis, fitokimia, genotipe, katekin, pucuk peko

Phytochemical screening was intended for a preliminary evaluation of the chemical constituents of the tea (Camellia sinensis). In addition, tea also contains catechin that can be used as an indication of the quality of tea leaves. The objectives of this study were to determine the content of the active compounds and catechin in tea. The research was conducted from April to June 2012 in the Laboratory of the Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogor. The phytochemical screening was performed based on the procedure of Materia Medika Indonesia (MMI), while the catechin analysis used the method of SNI gambir. The study was carried out in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The treatments used are six tea genotypes namely Tbs 1, Tbs 2, Hibrid, Cin 143, Rb 3, and Kiara 8. The results showed that the six tea genotypes tested contained the compounds of alkaloid, saponin, tannin, phenolic, flavanoid, steroid, and glycoside. Positively triterpenoid compounds present in the genotype of Tbs1, Hybrids, and Kiara 8, and negative in Tbs 2, Rb 3, and Cin 143. The genotypes of Tbs 1 and Tbs 2 produced the highest catechin content compared to the other genotypes. Catechin content was lowest in the part of internodes+leaf stalk of Rb 3 (1.78%). Pecco shoots produce catechin content of about 8.36%-18.22%, higher than the first leaf, second leaf, and the parts of internodes+leaf stalk.


Keywords


Camellia sinensis; phytochemical; genotype; catechin; pecco shoots

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v1n2.2014.p63-68

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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