Evaluasi Ukuran Biji Beras, Kadar Kafein, dan Mutu Cita Rasa Lima Kultivar Kopi Arabika

Enny Randriani, Dani Dani, Edi Wardiana

Abstract


Perbaikan mutu fisik, biokimia, dan cita rasa berbasis kultivar penting dilakukan saat ini untuk meningkatkan daya saing kopi Indonesia di pasar global. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi keragaman ukuran biji, kadar kafein, dan mutu cita rasa lima kultivar kopi Arabika, yaitu ABP-1, ABP-2, ABP-3, AGK-1, dan S-795. Kelima kultivar tersebut ditanam pada tahun 2008 oleh petani di Desa Marga Mulya, Kecamatan Cikandang, Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat pada ketinggian 1.300 m di atas permukaan laut. Biji dari masing-masing kultivar dipanen pada bulan Juli-Agustus 2013 melalui prosedur pengolahan basah. Sampel sebanyak 100 biji beras dari masing-masing kultivar diambil secara acak untuk pengukuran panjang, lebar, tebal, dan bobot 100 biji beras. Pengukuran tersebut diulang sebanyak tiga kali. Analisis varian satu arah dan analisis gerombol dilakukan terhadap data hasil pengukuran. Selain itu, sampel sebanyak 500 gram biji beras dari masing-masing kultivar digunakan untuk pengujian mutu fisik, kimia, dan cita rasa. Ukuran biji beras diklasifikasikan berdasarkan standar SNI 01-2907-2008, sedangkan kandungan kafein diuji berdasarkan prosedur Official Method of Analysis AOAC. Penilaian mutu seduhan mengacu kepada protokol Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA). Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa biji beras kultivar ABP-1, ABP-2, AGK-1, dan S-795 termasuk dalam kategori besar, meskipun berdasarkan analisis gerombol terbagi ke dalam dua kelompok. Hanya kultivar ABP-3 yang memiliki ukuran biji beras tergolong kecil dan mengelompok sendiri. Kandungan kafein biji kultivar ABP-1, ABP-2, dan S-795 di bawah 1%, sedangkan ABP-3 dan AGK-1 lebih besar dari 1%. Meskipun demikian, semua kultivar yang diuji termasuk dalam kategori spesialti karena nilai akhirnya mencapai > 80,00.

Kata Kunci: Kopi Arabika, spesialti, seleksi, spesifik lokasi

Cultivar-based quality improvement of Arabica coffee is very important in order to increase competitiveness of Indonesian coffee product in global market. The objectives of this study were to identify the diversity of green bean size, levels of caffeine, and quality among five Arabica coffee cultivars that cultivated by farmers in West Java, ABP-1, ABP-2, ABP-3, AGK-1, and S-795. The research was conducted at 1.300 m above sea level in Garut, West Java, Indonesia. Ripe cherries samples of each cultivars grown in the same area was taken in July-August 2013. Seeds were separated from the rind using wet processing procedure. Sample of 100 green beans were randomly taken for measurement of length, width, thickness, and weight of 100 green beans. Measurements were repeated three times and collected data were analyzed with analysis of variance and analysis of clusters methods. In addition, samples of 500 grams of green beans were taken from each cultivars and subsequently used for testing the quality of the physical, chemical and cupping. Green bean size was determined according to SNI 01-2907-2008, while caffeine content was analysed using AOAC Official Method of Analysis. Cupping test protocol was refer to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) method. The results showed that green bean size of ABP-1, ABP-2, AGK-, and S-795 cultivars were classified as large, even though they were clustered into two distinct groups. On the other hand, ABP-3 cultivar produced a small green bean size and solely separated into third group. Caffeine content of ABP-1, ABP-2, and S-795 cultivars were of < 1%, meanwhile ABP-3 and AGK-1 cultivars were of >1%. However, the quality and taste of all cultivars have very good cup quality (score> 80) and meets the criteria for specialty coffee.


Keywords


Arabica coffee; Specialty; selection; local specific

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v1n1.2014.p49-56

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2014 Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (JTIDP) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute
Jl. Raya Pakuwon Km. 2, Parungkuda, Sukabumi 43357 Jawa Barat Indonesia
Telp : (0266) 6542181
Fax : (0266) 6542087
Email : jtidp@litbang.pertanian.go.iduppublikasi@gmail.com
Website : http://balittri.litbang.pertanian.go.id



View My Stats