Penguatan Kelembagaan untuk Peningkatan Posisi Tawar Petani dalam Sistem Pemasaran Kakao

Dewi Listyati, Agus Wahyudi, Abdul Muis Hasibuan

Abstract


Kelembagaan petani kakao masih sangat lemah sehingga membuat posisi tawar petani menjadi lemah menghadapi sistem pasar yang ada. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kelembagaan yang ada di sentra produksi kakao Sulawesi Tenggara serta merumuskan strategi penguatan kelembagaan untuk meningkatkan posisi tawar petani dalam sistem pemasaran kakao. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni-Oktober 2012 di Kabupaten Kolaka, Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara dengan metode survey. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat empat model kelembagaan, yaitu model Gapoktan Harapan Jaya (GHJ), Gapoktan Kakao Bina Karya (GKBK), Gapoktan Kakao Maju Makmur (GKMM), dan tanpa gapoktan (TGKT). Dari empat model tersebut, model GHJ telah berkembang menjadi koperasi dan lebih baik dari yang lainnya dalam menjalankan fungsinya, yaitu dalam pemilihan pengurus, pemberian reward and punishment, penyedia sarana produksi dan pembiayaan, serta pengolahan hasil dan pemasaran. Model ini berperan mengadvokasi petani agar melakukan proses fermentasi biji kakao melalui rangsangan selisih harga. Untuk lebih menguatkan posisi tawar petani, dikembangkan konsep Model Kelembagaan Kakao yang merupakan kemitraan antara organisasi petani dengan industri pengolahan serta beberapa elemen terkait lainnya, yaitu petani/kelompok tani/gapoktan/asosiasi petani, industri pengolahan kakao, lembaga pembiayaan, lembaga penyuluhan, pemerintah, perguruan tinggi/lembaga litbang dan instansi terkait. Dalam model ini, asosiasi petani memegang peran penting sebagai lembaga pemasaran bersama yang berada di tingkat Kabupaten untuk memperkuat posisi tawar petani terhadap industri pengolahan/eksportir.

Kata Kunci: Model kelembagaan, petani kakao, harga, industri, pengolahan kakao

Institutional cocoa farmers is still very weak that cause low bargaining position of farmers in existing market system. The objectives of this study were to analyze the existing institutional in Southeast Sulawesi as cocoa production centers and to formulate the institutional model in improving bargaining position of farmers in the cocoa marketing system. The survey conducted in June-October 2012 at Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi Province. The results showed that there were four models of farmer’s institution, namely Gapoktan Harapan Jaya (GHJ), Gapoktan Kakao Bina Karya (GKBK), Gapoktan Kakao Maju Makmur (GKMM) and no farmers group. Of the four models, GHJ models are better than the others in carrying out its functions such asin the election of the board, giving reward and punishment, providing of agricultural inputs, financing, processing and marketing. This model had developed into a cooperative. In addition, this model also plays a role in advocating farmers to make the process of fermentation of cocoa beans, so that the price can be slightly higher than non-fermented, the price difference considered as the advantages for farmers. To strengthening the bargaining position of farmers, the concept of institutional models of cocoa which is a partnership between farmers and the processing industry organizations as well as several other institutions have been developed. At this model, farmers association has important roles to strengthen farmer’s bargaining to the industrial/exporter.


Keywords


Institutional model; cocoa farmers; price; industry

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v1n1.2014.p15-28

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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