Formulasi Pemupukan Berimbang pada Tanaman Lada di Bangka Belitung

Usman Daras, Iing Sobari, Juniaty Towaha

Abstract


Banyak faktor yang diperkirakan menjadi penyebab masih rendahnya rataan produksi lada di Bangka Belitung, termasuk pemeliharaan tanaman yang belum optimal. Dalam upaya meningkatkan hasil lada, sebagian petani telah menggunakan pupuk N, P dan K meskipun jumlah dan/komposisi unsur pupuk yang diberikan mungkin tidak sesuai dengan yang dibutuhkan tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan formula dan dosis pemupukan N, P dan K untuk memperbaiki pertumbuhan dan produksi lada di Bangka Belitung. Faktor yang diuji adalah komposisi NPK, 3 macam (K1 = NPK 12:12:17; K2 = NPK 15:15:15; dan K3 = NPK 12:8:20), yang masing-masing terdiri atas 3 taraf dosis pemupukan (D1 = 1,8; D2 = 2,4; dan D3 = 3,0 kg NPK/ph/th). Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah acak kelompok dengan 3 ulangan dan ukuran petak 16 tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk 1,8 kg per pohon merupakan dosis pemupukan yang cukup memadai untuk budidaya tanaman lada dewasa (TM) di wilayah Bangka Belitung. Dosis pupuk tersebut, 25% lebih rendah dari anjuran umum pemupukan. Ketika komposisi NPK 12:12:17 tidak tersedia di pasaran, maka komposisi pupuk NPK 15:15:15 adalah alternatif pupuk yang dapat digunakan. Namun, dengan memperhatikan karakteristik tanaman lada dan kondisi agroklimat wilayah Bangka Belitung maka penggunaan komposisi pupuk NPK 12:8:20 dengan dosis 1,8 kg/pohon lebih dianjurkan.

 

Formulation of Balanced Fertilizers on Black Pepper Grown in Bangka Belitung

ABSTRACT

Many factors believed affect the growth and yields of black pepper in Bangka Belitung. The low productivity of black pepper in the areas is mainly attributed to imbalanced manuring, poor management practices and disease incidence. To improve yields of the crop, farmers commonly use fertilizers despite the fact that the amounts and kind of nutrients added might not meet its requirement for optimum growth. A research was established to investigate effects of fertilizer compositions and rates on growth and yields of mature black pepper grown at Bangka, from January to December 2011. Treatments examined were composition of NPK fertilizers, 3 kinds of NPK (15:15:15, 12:12:17, and 12:8:20), consisting of three rates each (1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 kg/tree). The treatments were arranged in randomized block design with 3 replicates and plot size of 16 plants. Results revealed that application of 1.8 kg/tree was likely to be an adequate amount of fertilizer rate that should be added to give comparable growth and yields in black pepper. It means that the added ferlitizers was 25 percent lower than those of the recommended one as much as 2.4 kg of NPK 12:12:17/tree/year. As the recommended fertilizer hard to be obtained in a local place recently, the use of NPK 15:15:15 may therefore be suggested for black pepper growing in Bangka Belitung. For long term purpose, the use of 1.8 kg NPK 12:8:20/tree would however be a preferably added fertilizer in relation to the characteristics of the crop and agro-climatic condition of Bangka Belitung.


Keywords


Black pepper; formulation; balanced fertilization

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2012.p185-192

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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