Keragaman 17 Aksesi Plasma Nutfah Kakao Berdasarkan Penanda Morfologi dan Molekuler

Syafaruddin Syafaruddin, M A Nasution

Abstract


Kakao merupakan tanaman potensial, informasi lengkap termasuk molekuler sangat diperlukan untuk pengembangan ragam selanjutnya. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengevaluasi keragaman genetik, hubungan kekerabatan dan identifikasi kultivar tanaman kakao baik secara morfologi maupun molekuler.  Penelitian dilaksanakan di lapangan, yaitu di Kabupaten Pinrang dan Luwu Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan, serta di Laboratorium Biologi Molekuler, BB-Biogen, Bogor. Penelitian dimulai Maret sampai Desember 2011. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan 17 aksesi kakao. Selain pengamatan karakteristik morfologi, dilakukan juga analisa molekuler dengan beberapa tahapan: Isolasi DNA mengikuti metode CTAB Doyle dan Doyle, pemurnian DNA mengikuti metode Sambrook dan Russel, penetapan kualitas DNA, dan Reaksi amplifikasi dan elektroforesis mengikuti metode Williams. Sedangkan untuk uji similaritas digunakan software N-Tsys. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari 46 pola pita yang dihasilkan oleh 8 primer diperoleh 36 pita polimorfisme (78%) dan 10 pita monomorfik. Analisis kluster terhadap 14 karakter utama morfologi tanaman kakao menghasilkan dendrogram dengan koefisien kemiripan berkisar antara 65-98% atau terdapat keragaman genetik sebesar 2-35%.  Sedangkan analisis kluster terhadap 46 pola pita DNA menghasilkan dendrogram dengan koefisien kemiripan berkisar antara 64-91% atau terdapat keragaman genetik sebesar 9-36%. Hasil analisis secara morfologi maupun molekuler, keduanya menunjukkan variasi yang sempit.

 

Variation of 17 Cocoa Accessions Germplasm Based on Morphological and Molecular Marker

ABSTRACT

Cocoa is one of other important crops of Indonesia. Comprehensive information of cocoa is therefore needed, including molecular information for crop improvement.The purpose of this experiment was to find out information of genetic variation, genetic relationship and cultivar identification of cocoa by using morphology character and molecular analysis. The experiment was conducted at field in South Sulawesi and Molecular Biology Laboratory of BB-Biogen, Bogor since March till December 2011. Genetic material used were 17 accessions of cocoa, and other material were chemical substances. Besides morphological characteristics, molecular markers were also analyzed by using several steps: DNA isolation uses CTAB methods by Doyle and Doyle, DNA purification uses Sambrook and Russel methods, and amplification and electrophoresis reaction uses Williams methods. Whereas genetically similarity were analyzed by using N-Tsys. Result showsed that of 46 band patterns of DNA is resulted from 8 primers yielded of 36 band patterns of polymorphism (78%) and 10 band patterns of monomorphism.  Based on the cluster analysis of 14 main morphologycal characters, it was obtained a dendrogram with similarity coefficient about 65-98% or genetic variation about 2-35%. While cluster analysis to 46 band patterns of DNA was obtained a dendrogram with similarity coefficient about 64-91% or genetic variation about 9-36%. Based on morphologycal and genetic characters, both the results show narrow variation.


Keywords


Cocoa; variation; morphology; molecular

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v3n2.2012.p177-184

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.699/AU2/P2MI-LIPI/10/2015 on Oktober 30, 2015 by Indonesian Institute of Science

                    


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