Pengaruh Mikoriza dan Pupuk NPK terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jambu Mete Muda

Octivia Trisilawati, Juniaty Towaha, Usman Daras

Abstract


Penelitian pengaruh fungi mikoriza asbuskula (FMA) dan pupuk NPK pada pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman jambu mete muda dilaksanakan di KP. Cikampek, Jawa Barat dari bulan Januari sampai Desember 2011. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah acak kelompok, terdiri dari dua faktor, yang diulang 4 kali dengan ukuran plot 4 tanaman/perlakuan. Faktor I adalah aplikasi FMA, yaitu tanpa FMA dan aplikasi 12 kaplet FMA/tanaman.  Faktor II adalah pupuk NPK (g/tan.) yang terdiri dari: (a) dosis pupuk NPK rekomendasi (100 g N, 80 g P2O5, 100 g K2O/tan.), (b) 3/4 dosis pupuk NPK rekomendasi, dan (c) 1/2 dosis pupuk NPK rekomendasi. Parameter pengamatan meliputi penambahan jumlah daun, tinggi tanaman, diameter cabang, lilit batang utama, lebar kanopi, panjang cabang, jumlah cabang tersier, jumlah tandan bunga, jumlah buah per tandan, dan jumlah gelondong per pohon.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penurunan dosis pemupukan NPK sampai 50% dari dosis rekomendasi yang disertai dengan pemberian mikoriza (FMA) tidak mengakibatkan penurunan pertumbuhan dan produksi jambu mete varietas BO2 hasil grafting. Sebagai implikasi, adanya respon positif pada pertumbuhan dan produksi jambu mete dapat dijadikan petunjuk bahwa penggunaan mikoriza mampu meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan pupuk NPK.

Effect of Mycorrhizal and NPK Fertilizer on Young Cashew Growth and Production

ABSTRACT

A study of the application of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) and reduction of NPK fertilizer rates was carried out on grafted young cashew trees grown at Cikampek Research Station, West Java, from January to December 2011. Experimetal design used was a randomized block design, consisting of two factors, repeated 4 times with plot size of 4 plants. The first factor was application of AMF, consisting of without AMF and with inoculation of 12 AMF caplets/plant. The second factor was application of NPK fertilizer, consisting of: (a) Full recommended of NPK fertilizer rates (100 g N, 80 g P2O5, 100 g K2O/plant.), (b) 3/4 recommended NPK fertilizer rate, and (c) 1/2 recommended NPK fertilizer rate. Parameters observed included the increase of number of leave, plant height, diameters of branch, main girth and canopy, branch length, number of tertiary branches, number of bunches of flowers, the number of fruits per bunch, and the number of nuts per tree. Results showed that the reduction of NPK fertilizer application upto 50% of recommended fertilizer rates combined with the application of AMF on the young cashew trees (2.5 years old) did not result in any reduction of plant growth measured significantly. As an amplication, the application of micorhizal fungus is likely able to increase efficiency of fertilizer use to the crop indicated by comparable growth of the treated ones.


Keywords


Anacardium occidentale L.; mycorrhiza; fertilizer

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2012.p91-98

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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