Analisis Kinerja dan Daya Saing Perdagangan Biji Kakao dan Produk Kakao Olahan Indonesia di Pasar Internasional

Abdul Muis Hasibuan, Rita Nurmalina, Agus Wahyudi

Abstract


Kakao merupakan komoditas yang sangat penting bagi Indonesia sebagai salah satu negara eksportir utama kakao  dalam perdagangan internasional. Pasar kakao dunia masih memiliki potensi sangat tinggi, yang ditunjukkan oleh peningkatan konsumsi sehingga Indonesia diharapkan mampu meraih peluang pasar yang ada. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja dan daya saing perdagangan biji kakao dan produk-produk kakao olahan Indonesia di pasar internasional. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data sekunder. Untuk mengukur daya saing produk kakao Indonesia menggunakan Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Indeks Spesialisasi Perdagangan (ISP), Export Product Dynamics (EPD), dan Constant Market Share Analysis (CMSA). Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia mengalami surplus dalam perdagangan kakao, yang ditunjukkan oleh tren yang meningkat dalam beberapa tahun terakhir. Indonesia juga memiliki keunggulan komparatif sebagai eksportir biji kakao dan kakao olahan di pasar internasional. Hasil analisis EPD dan CMSA, terdapat sedikit perbedaan. Analisis EPD hampir semua produk kakao memiliki daya saing, sedangkan analisis CMSA menunjukkan produk-produk kakao yang memiliki daya saing adalah produk-produk kakao olahan. Untuk itu, dalam upaya meningkatkan daya saing produk kakao, baik dalam bentuk biji maupun produk olahan, diperlukan upaya peningkatan kualitas biji kakao dan pengembangan industri hilir.

Analysis of performance and competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa and its intermediate products in the international market

ABTRACT

Cocoa is an important commodity for Indonesia, known as the third largest producing countries after Ivory Coast and Ghana. In the world market, the cocoa likely possesses high potency indicated by its consumption increasing steadily from year to year. It therefore enables Indonesia to play an important role and reach the chance. This study aims to analysis the performance and competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa bean and its intermediate products in the international market. Data used in this study were secondary on which competitive measures such as Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Trade Specialization Index (TSI), Export Product Dynamics (EPD), and Constant Market Share Analysis (CMSA) were approached. Results showed that the country has surplus in trade performance of cocoa bean indicated by its positive trend recently.  As the main exporting country, Indonesian cocoa has comparative advantage, both in form of cocoa bean and its intermediate products. Based on EPD analysis, almost all cocoa products have competitive advantage. While that of CMS analysis, the intermediate products have a higher competitive advantage than the cocoa bean. To improve competitiveness of the products, it needs to develop downstream industry, and some efforts to improve cocoa bean quality.


Keywords


Cocoa; trade; competitiveness; market share; comparative advantage

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2012.p57-70

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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