Potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam Menekan Perkembangan Penyakit Busuk Pucuk Vanili di Pembibitan

Efi Taufiq

Abstract


Penyakit busuk pucuk vanili (BPV) yang disebabkan oleh Phytophthora capsici merupakan kendala pada pembibitan dan pertanaman vanili. Pengendalian penyakit umumnya menggunakan fungisida sintetik yang harganya mahal dan menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan. Pengendalian penyakit dengan agens hayati sudah dikembangkan dan berhasil mengatasi penyakit busuk pangkal batang pada tanaman vanili.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan isolat Trichoderma dari tanah, rizosfer dan jaringan tanaman vanili sebagai agens hayati terhadap P. capsici secara in vitro dan in vivo (pembibitan). Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikologi Departemen Proteksi Tanaman IPB, Laboratorium Penyakit Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat di Bogor, dan Rumah Kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar di Sukabumi. Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari risosfir dan jaringan tanaman vanili dari Serang, Sukabumi, dan Batu. Pengujian antagonisme in vitro dilakukan pada 17 isolat Trichoderma spp. menggunakan metode dual culture dan metode kertas cakram, sedangkan pengujian  in vivo dilakukan pada 6 isolat Trichoderma spp. menggunakan media jagung dan metode penyemprotan suspensi konidia agens hayati.  Peubah yang diamati adalah kejadian dan tingkat keparahan penyakit busuk pucuk pada vanili.  Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan 3 ulangan.  Hasil penelitian diperoleh 114 isolat jamur; 97 dari rizosfir, 11 dari tajuk dan 6 dari akar (endofit).  Hasil pengujian patogenisitas menunjukkan bahwa 63 isolat bersifat patogenik  pada tanaman vanili (umumnya  genus Fusarium) dan 51 isolat  tidak patogenik (umumnya Trichoderma).  Daya hambat in vitro isolat Trichoderma spp. terhadap P. capsici berkisar antara 44,5-73,5%, sedangkan dengan metode cakram daya hambatnya  6,3-75%. Keefektifan 6 isolat Trichoderma spp. menekan perkembangan penyakit busuk pucuk pada bibit vanili berkisar antara 66,67-68,00%. Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan bahwa ada beberapa isolat Trichoderma spp yang berpotensi sebagai agens hayati untuk menekan perkembangan penyakit busuk pucuk vanili yang disebabkan oleh P. capsici.

 

Potential of Trichoderma spp. To suppress development of the shoot rot disease of vanilla in nurseries

ABTRACT

Shoot rot disease of vanilla (BPV) is caused by Phytophthora capsici is a constraint on the seedling and planting vanilla. Disease control generally use synthetic fungicides are expensive and cause environmental pollution. Disease control with biological agents has been developed and successfully overcome the base of the stem rot disease in vanilla plants. This study aims to obtain isolates of Trichoderma from soil, rhizosphere and plant tissue vanilla as a biological agent against P. capsici in vitro and in vivo (seedling). Mycological Research conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Protection Department of IPB, Laboratory Center for Disease Spices and Medicinal Plants Research in Bogor, and Greenhouse Crops Research Institute for Industry and freshening in Sukabumi. Trichoderma spp. isolated from plant tissue,  rizosphere and vanilla from Serang, Sukabumi, and Batu. Invitro antagonism test performed on 17 isolates of Trichoderma spp. using the dual culture method and the method of the paper disc, whereas in vivo tests carried out on six isolates of Trichoderma spp. using corn media and methods of spraying conidia suspensions of biological agents. Observed variable is the incidence and severity of shoot rot disease in vanilla. Research using randomized block design with three replications. The results obtained 114 isolates of the fungus; 97 of the rizosphere, 11 of the canopy and 6 of the root (Endophytic). The results of pathogenicity tests showed that 63 isolates are pathogenic on plants vanilla (generally  Fusarium) and 51 isolates were not pathogenic (generally  Trichoderma). The inhibition of in vitro isolates of Trichoderma spp. against P. capsici ranged from 44.5 to 73.5%, while the disc method hambatnya power from 6.3 to 75%. The effectiveness of six isolates of Trichoderma spp. suppress the development of bud rot disease in vanilla seeds ranged from 66.67 to 68.00%. The results indicate that some isolates of Trichoderma spp as potential biological agents to suppress the development of shoot rot disease of vanilla caused by P. capsici.


Keywords


Vanilla; Trichoderma spp.; Phytophthora capsici

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2012.p49-56

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia

                    


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