Peningkatan Produksi dan Pengembangan Kakao ( Theobroma cacao L. ) di Indonesia

Rubiyo Rubiyo, Siswanto Siswanto

Abstract


Indonesia dikenal sebagai negara pengekspor biji kakao terpenting di dunia. Tahun 2010 Indonesia menduduki posisi sebagai pengekspor biji kakao terbesar ketiga dunia dengan produksi biji kering 550.000 ton. Pada tahun tersebut dari luas 1.651.539 ha areal kakao, sekitar 1.555.596 ha atau 94% adalah kakao rakyat. Hal ini mengindikasikan peran penting kakao baik sebagai sumber lapangan kerja maupun pendapatan bagi petani. Di samping itu, areal dan produksi kakao Indonesia meningkat pesat pada dekade terakhir, dengan laju 5,99% per tahun. Namun demikian, seiring dengan semakin luasnya daerah pengembangan kakao, akhir-akhir ini produksi dan produktivitas kakao di Indonesia terus mengalami penurunan yang sangat berarti. Selain tingkat produktivitas yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan potensi klon atau bahan tanam yang ada, aspek mutu juga mengalami penurunan. Menurunnya mutu dan daya hasil tersebut dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor antara lain serangan organisme pengganggu tanaman seperti infeksi penyakit dan serangan hama penggerek buah kakao (PBK), bahan tanam kakao yang diusahakan, penanganan pasca panen, dan sistem usahatani. Teknologi yang tersedia untuk mendukung peningkatan produksi dan pengembangan kakao antara lain bahan tanaman unggul, informasi kesesuaian lahan, teknologi perbanyakan bahan tanaman, teknologi pengendalian hama dan penyakit utama, teknologi sambung samping dan sambung pucuk, teknologi pengolahan hasil dan teknologi pengembangan industri kakao. Bahan tanaman unggul memegang peranan yang sangat penting dalam usahatani kakao di Indonesia. Saat ini telah dihasilkan beberapa  klon unggul kakao dengan produktivitas di atas 2 ton/ha/th, beberapa di antaranya juga mempunyai sifat tahan terhadap hama dan penyakit utama kakao. Pengendalian hama dan penyakit tersebut, saat ini telah diimplementasikan model pengendalian secara terpadu yang melibatkan komponen bahan tanam unggul resisten terhadap hama dan penyakit, teknologi budidaya serta kriteria lahan yang sesuai untuk tanaman kakao. Produktivitas dan mutu hasil kakao sangat ditentukan oleh kualitas bahan tanam. Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan mutu hasil kakao dapat dilakukan dengan teknik klonalisasi dengan cara sambung samping. Teknik sambung samping telah terbukti mampu memperbaiki produktivitas dan mutu kakao rakyat. Teknologi sambung samping telah diadopsi oleh para petani pekebun khususnya untuk merehabilitasi tanaman tua dan tanaman kurang produktif. Selain itu, teknologi pengolahan hasil dan pengembangan industri hilir juga telah banyak tersedia antara lain teknologi fermentasi, teknologi pengolahan limbah, dan teknologi diversifikasi produk. Agar usahatani kakao dapat berkembang sesuai dengan yang diharapkan, ke depan diperlukan upaya untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan pengembangan penanganan hasil dan produk kakao di Indonesia.

Improvement and Development Production of Cocoa in Indonesia

ABTRACT

Indonesia is known as important exporting country of the world's cocoa beans. In 2010 Indonesia is the third largest world exporter of cocoa beans with production estimated 550,000 tons of dry beans. From1,651,596 ha in Indonesia, approximately 1,555,539 ha or 94% is managed by smallholders. This indicates an important role of cocoa both as a source of employment and income for farmers. In addition, the acreage and production of cocoa Indonesia increased rapidly in the last decade, a rate of 5,99% per year. Cocoa crop is non-oil export commodity which is very important in the estate sub-sector. Aside from being a source of state divisa, cocoa trees in Indonesia is a source of income and employment to estate farmers. Along with the vast development of new cocoa areas in Indonesia, the recent production and productivity of cocoa in Indonesia continues to a significant decline. In addition to a smaller level of productivity compared to the clone or plant material potency, the quality aspect also decreased. The decline in the quality and yield are influenced by many factors, among others, the attacks of infectious diseases and pests such as cocoa fruit borer Conophomorpha cramerella, plant materials, post harvest and farming systems. Technology available to support increased production and development of cocoa among other superior cacao plant materials, information, suitability of land for cocoa, the technology of plant propagation materials, technology major pest and disease control, side-grafting technology and continued shoots, processing technology and technological development of the cocoa industry. Superior cocoa plant material plays a very important role in cocoa farms in Indonesia. At present it has produced some excellent cocoa clones with productivity above 2 tons/ha/yr, some of which also have properties resistant to pests and major diseases of cocoa. To control pests and diseases have now implemented an integrated control model that involves components of superior planting materials that are resistant to pests and diseases, cultivation technology, and the criteria for suitable land for cocoa plants. Productivity and quality of cocoa is largely determined by the quality of planting material. One effort to improve cocoa productivity and quality results can be done with the clonalisasion technique by side-grafting. Side-grafting technique has been shown to improve cocoa productivity and quality of the people. Side-grafting technology has adopted by farmers to rehabilitate crop planters, especially older and less productive plants. Besides processing technology and the development of downstream industries have also been widely available among other  fermentation technology, processing technology and waste  product diversification technology. In order cocoa farming can be developed in the future, the next necessary efforts is to improve product development and processing of cocoa.


Keywords


Cocoa; improvement; development; Indonesia

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2012.p33-48

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 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
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